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#OnThisDay 5th December 1921: After the F.A had banned women playing ‘football’ on league affiliated grounds, saying it was “most unsuitable” for them to play the game #AceNewsDesk report

If you want to keep your insides woman don’t play football 😁😁

#AceNewsReport – Dec.05: At the time the women’s game was growing in popularity and attracting crowds of up to 53,000. The decision changed the course of female football forever:

Rough games are crazy 😁😄

#AceSportsDesk The Evolution Of Women’s Football Report: How the women’s FA Cup final has evolved in 50 years since FA ban was lifted this was until an FA Council meeting in January 1970 rescinded the resolution made five decades earlier.

FA Council meeting notes January 1970

A year later the first women’s FA Cup final was held and as the competition celebrates its 50 year anniversary season – and 100 years on from the controversial ban – BBC Sport speaks to female football legends on the evolution of the women’s game: Women’s FA Cup final: The changing face of the game over 50 years

‘I’ll never forget lifting the cup, that was my Wembley’ – Lloyd 

Southampton women 1971
Southampton women, captained by Lesley Lloyd, won the first women’s FA Cup in 1971

Lesley Lloyd captained Southampton to glory in the first Women’s FA Cup final in 1971, beating Scottish side Stewarton & Thistle 4-1 at Crystal Palace National Sports Centre. The Saints went on to win eight of the next 11 cups.

What was it like playing football during that time?

“I used to have a cheese and pickle sandwich before I walked out on to the pitch. We just turned up and that was it. When we went back to the changing rooms after playing we used to have to wash our boots with a pipe. It was crazy! We had no facilities but we just played for the love of it. We loved the game.

What was it like playing during the ban?

“We were laughed at, to be quite honest. We used to hear about this ban and boys used to make fun of us for being women playing football, but in the end I think they could see that we were serious about it.”

What do you remember about that first FA Cup final and lifting the trophy? 

“I remember getting to the final. We arrived at the pitch and they had forgotten to cut the grass.

“I remember the manager saying to us it was the most important game we were ever going to play so to get out there and do something.

“There was a wooden hut full of supporters. I’ll never forget lifting the cup. That was my Wembley. I know now what the ladies have is brilliant, but to us that was it. 

“We didn’t even take a photograph of the team until the following week. We washed all our kit and the photo was taken a week later, not on the day. It shows how much things have changed.”

How do you feel now watching a women’s cup final and seeing way the game has developed?

“I think it’s brilliant – they have everything. It’s great to see what there is now. Women should be entitled to exactly what the men have and I’d love to have been born in this era. But no matter what era you’re playing in, the competitive spirit doesn’t change. 

“I’ve still got people that come up to me and talk about it now. I’m still a season ticket holder at Southampton and my whole family have been brought up on football. My children and grandchildren love watching women’s football. I’m actually bringing my grandson to the final at Wembley. You never lose the love of the game.”

‘We’d get comments telling us to get married and have kids’ 

Gill Coultard
Former England captain Gill Coultard won the FA Cup six times with Doncaster Belles

Former England captain Gill Coultard had a 25-year playing career from the mid 70s until 2001, winning the FA Cup six times with Doncaster Belles. Having become the first woman to reach 100 England caps, England’s first woman to score in a Wembley international and the first to score for England in a women’s World Cup, in 2021 she was awarded an MBE for services to football. 

What were some of the barriers that you had to overcome as a woman playing football?

“One of the biggest things that stands out for me will always be the comment that I’m a woman, I shouldn’t be playing football and that I should be washing up at the sink.

“We’d get comments from the stands about getting married and having kids. That happened quite a lot during my time, especially when I first started. I couldn’t get my head around it, I was only 13 and I was playing for Doncaster Belles when I kept hearing people saying this even as I got older and just thought, it’s not right.”

Have you seen attitudes change?

“They’ve definitely changed and I think that’s because there’s much more opportunity now for women and girls to play the game. There’s more of a pathway. There are England teams at youth level which weren’t there before and it’s massively grown, which is where we should be today.”

On the 50th anniversary of the women’s FA Cup final, how do you feel about being a pioneer in the game?

“There were pioneers before me and we’ve all paved the way for the next generation. It’s great to see the final be played at Wembley again. It’s the home of football, it’s where everyone wants to play and for the final to be played there, that’s how much the women’s game has evolved and hopefully that’ll be how it is for the rest of my lifetime.” 

‘We couldn’t afford the bus to the stadium’ – Bronze 

Lucy Bronze
Manchester City and England defender Lucy Bronze (right) played in the 2009 FA Cup final between Arsenal and Sunderland

Manchester City and England defender Lucy Bronze is one of the most recognisable names in women’s football today. Two-time FA Cup winner with City, Bronze’s first FA Cup final came as a 17-year-old with third-tier Sunderland. In 2018 and 2020 she was named BBC Women’s Footballer of the Year and in 2019 became the first English footballer to win the Uefa women’s player of the year award. 

Do you feel you’ve had to overcome barriers during your time as a professional footballer?

“I think I’m part of the generation in the middle. I remember being in the FA Cup final for Sunderland in 2009 against Arsenal. I was 17 years old at the time and we couldn’t even afford the bus to the stadium. 

“We had to bag pack in one of the supermarkets to raise money to pay for the bus. We didn’t even have a warm-up kit for that game – we had to wear our old away shirt from the season before to warm up in.”

How do you think the game has developed?

“In my first final when I was 17 I was a complete nobody – my own team-mates barely knew who I was let alone anyone else. Whereas in the 2017 final, it was off the back of the World Cup where people started to know who I was. The women’s game was changing in England, the England international team was changing and that was a really big deal, especially with it being played at Wembley.”

Did you ever think you’d be walking out at Wembley in an FA Cup final?

“I never thought we’d be playing at Wembley. It’s a stadium with so much history, it’s so well known and so many people have a connection to it. It’s amazing to get to play there.”

What more needs to be done to change attitudes towards women’s football?

“It’s easy to say that the growth has been good for the sport, because it has. I don’t think any other sport has grown at the rate of women’s football but that’s not to say that we’re where we need to be. 

“We need to grow, we need to get more girls playing and playing to a higher level. We need more clubs to invest so it’s not just a small group of clubs that people talk about winning things and we want to see a bit more competition. I think we need to grow the fanbases of women’s clubs too. Personally, I think there is room for improvement in every single area. 

“I’ve experienced both ends of the scale and I love it. It makes me appreciate things more but it also makes me want to fight and keep going and not settle.” 

How much further on could the game be without the ban all those years ago?

“When you look back at pictures before the ban came in, stadiums are more full then than they are now. It blows my mind to see stadiums that full watching women’s football, but it just shows that at one time it was at that same level as the men’s game. 

“We’re chasing after that ban because during that time men’s football was constantly growing and women’s wasn’t. It’s a tough task but everyone involved is pushing for it to get back to where it was.”Bronze (right) won the FA Cup with Manchester City in 2020

Alex Greenwood and Lucy Bronze of Manchester City
Bronze (right) won the FA Cup with Manchester City in 2020

#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Dec.05: 2021:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily all of our posts fromTwitter can be found here: https://acetwitternews.wordpress.com/ and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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World History & Research Reports

(JAPAN) Jujitsu Suffragettes Report: How women fought for the vote with an ancient martial art #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport- Oct.21: At the dawn of the 20th century, Edith Garrud was observing a political demonstration at the House of Commons when a police officer told her to move along. She demurely pretended to drop her handkerchief. “Excuse me, it’s you who are making an obstruction,” was her retort, and she threw the surprised man over her shoulder. She then slipped innocently through the crowd while the stunned officer attempted to regain his composure.

#AceHistoryDesk says according to BBC History Magazine as a campaign for women’s suffrage grew more extreme, so did the violence directed against it. Here, Emelyne Godfrey reveals how suffragettes fought back by mastering an ancient Japanese martial art ……..This article was first published in the December 2012 issue

Suffragettes photographed in a dispute with the police

“The last heroine left,” was how Edith (1872–1971) described herself in an interview with Godfrey Winn for Woman magazine in 1965. The interviewer was indeed impressed by Edith’s unusual adventures during the heated campaign for women’s suffrage prior to the First World War, a campaign of such historical importance that suffragettes were represented at the London 2012 Olympic opening ceremony. What is less well known is the connection between the suffragettes and the martial arts contests that featured as part of the Olympic Games.

In 1906, the Daily Mail coined the term ‘suffragettes’ to describe the female campaigners (male militants were known as ‘suffragents’) who were impatient with the peaceful methods of polite persuasion advocated by the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies. One of these campaigners, Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst, founded the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) with her eldest daughter, Christabel, in Manchester in 1903.


Listen: June Purvis considers the roles of Emmeline, Christabel and Sylvia Pankhurst in the fight for women’s suffrage in Britain, on this episode of the HistoryExtra podcast:


Pankhurst’s military-style organisation employed headline-grabbing tactics such as holding demonstrations, undertaking deputations and boldly interrupting political speeches. Edith was involved with both the WSPU and headed the athletes’ branch of the more democratically structured Women’s Freedom League (WFL), which was formed in 1907.

Suffragettes risked their reputations and put themselves in physical danger. Elizabeth Robins’s hit stage play, Votes for Women!, and the successful accompanying novel, The Convert of 1907, vividly evoked the disturbing scenes of their confrontations. As Robins highlighted, a speaker at rallies had to learn not only to be persuasive but also self-assured when faced with insults from hostile crowds.

Even in society drawing rooms, when the topic of suffragettes and women’s rights entered polite conversation, chivalry often made a sharp exit. A BBC History Magazine article by June Purvis on anti-suffragette Postcards showed how militant campaigners were portrayed as unhinged, disorganised female monstrosities. As a result, the response to women behaving ‘badly’ could be vitriolic and, worse still, violent.

Read more articles about the Suffragettes

This illustration from a Women’s Social and Political Union poster condemns the force-feeding of suffragettes in 1910. Many women were subjected to this brutal procedure between 1909 and August 1914. (Museum of London)

Physical aggression

In the 19th century, violent self-defence – involving, for example, the use of knives and firearms – had come to be regarded as foreign and uncivilised. The suffragettes therefore tried, for the most part, to combat any physical aggression directed towards them with minimal aggression – and most even refrained from using their hatpins.

Hatpins may not strike us as being a particularly menacing weapon today, but back in the Edwardian era – when women’s hats were huge and the pins themselves could be up to 16 inches long – they were potentially lethal.

Newspapers and publishers were certainly alive to their dangers, filling their pages with stories of hatpin suicides, accidents and murders. In the Sherlock Holmes story, The Adventure of the Abbey Grange (1904), the evil Sir Eustace Brackenstall stabs his wife with her own hatpin.

Meanwhile, so anxious were the authorities that suffragettes might turn their hatpins into deadly weapons that they banned them in prison chapels. This inspired Katherine Willoughby Marshall – who was arrested for throwing a potato at Winston Churchill’s fanlight – to affix her headgear with a toothbrush to great comic effect.

Not all suffragettes refused to fight fire with fire. In fact, a number carried dog-whips to keep rowdies at bay. The most famous woman to wield this weapon was the Scottish suffragette Flora Drummond, who was known as ‘The General’, as she wore military-style uniforms, and as ‘The Precocious Piglet’, for cornering Winston Churchill.

Teresa Billington-Greig, a founder of the WFL, treasured her dog-whip and wrote a piece entitled The Woman with the Whip (1907), where she linked women’s political inequality with sexual harassment on the streets. Maud Arncliffe Sennett, who ran a party accessories shop in London, was arrested in 1911 for smashing the windows of the Daily Mail office. She added the receipts for her 960mm-long leather dog-whip and hammer to her scrapbook, and the whip is now kept in the Museum of London.

When the university graduate Helen Ogston interrupted Lloyd George’s speech at the Albert Hall in 1908, she wielded her whip against the stewards. She returned bruised and burnt by a cigar, but the warrior received much warm praise. “Let me touch the hand that used the dog-whip!” cried one lady at a suffragette meeting. Not everyone was so impressed though: crowds regularly sang uncomplimentary songs about whip-wielding women, while the press drew parallels between these campaigners and drunkards.

What was needed was a form of self-defence in battle that was both socially acceptable and employed minimal violence. Katherine Willoughby Marshall’s solution was to wear cardboard armour; other suffragettes hired prizefighters to protect them from attack. But soon women were learning to protect themselves in hand-to-hand combat.

Edith Garrud’s husband, William, was a jujitsu teacher. This Japanese martial art was based on the idea of applying pressure to joints, using opponents’ strength and weight against them. Jujitsu was considered ideal for people of smaller statures and Edith assisted William at his school with classes for women and children.

Following a presentation to the WSPU, Edith became a celebrity – so much so that Health & Strength, the oldest known English physical culture magazine still in print today, featured her in an amusing piece entitled ‘Ju-jutsuffragettes: A New Terror for the London Police’: “The Policemen of London are feeling rather uneasy just at present. The various arts of self-defence (boxing, wrestling, ju-jutsu, etc), have for years past formed an indispensable part of their training, but they have become extra specially keen upon perfecting themselves in those methods… The Suffragettes have taken up the study of ju-jutsu… We shall cease to read of their frantic but helpless struggles in the arms of giant constables… We shall see the prime minister as he emerges from No 10 Downing Street, seized suddenly and compelled to kneel for mercy, simply because some fair damsel has put a deadly-arm lock upon him. Mr Winston Churchill, strolling peaceably across Parliament Square, will unexpectedly find himself turning a somersault in the air.” (Health and Strength, April 1909)

Critics of women’s sport wondered whether lady athletes were ‘proper’. Would, for example, cycling render women barren, would lady cricketers develop a stoop, could swimming turn hair white, did boxing lead to an over-ruddy complexion? To counter unfavourable depictions of campaigners as being unfeminine, suffragettes who practised martial arts cultivated a dainty appearance. In photos from the upmarket Sketchmagazine, Edith wears a fashionably huge hat, which stays in place until she is on the ground. So, despite the potentially racy, close, physical nature of the sport, Edith shows that a jujitsu girl could be lithe, ladylike and respectable. Jujitsu allowed suffragettes to level the playing field without offending expectations of femininity.

Edith’s school, located just off Oxford Circus, became a refuge for suffragettes engaged in smashing windows in the West End in 1912. They would hide their hammers under the floorboards and pretend to be engaged in a jujitsu class when police officers came knocking on Edith’s door. That the jujitsu class was used as a mask for rebellious behaviour reveals the extent to which the British public had accepted jujitsu as a sport for women.

The British craze for Japan in the early 1900s

When Japan opened its doors to the west in the 19th century, it became a close ally of Britain. Suddenly, Britons became fascinated in all things Japanese. For example, Standen, a Sussex country house run by the National Trust, is a charming example of the influence of Japanese culture on English interior design of that era. 

Following a stay in Japan, the engineer Edward William Barton-Wright (1860–1951) popularised Japanese jujitsu through his new martial art ‘bartitsu’, which famously appeared, misspelled as ‘baritsu’, in Arthur Conan Doyle’s 1903 story The Adventure of the Empty House. In this tale, Sherlock Holmes uses his knowledge of the art to cast the evil Professor Moriarty into the Reichenbach Falls in Switzerland. 

Jujitsu became a worldwide craze and was taken up by people from all walks of life, including politicians, police officers and actresses. Admiration for Japan surged during its victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, and the Japan-British Exhibition, held at White City in 1910, was a public relations success. Japanese martial arts appeared in the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides manuals (next to tips on how to tie up burglars!) and, during the First World War, pamphlets appeared on the use of jujitsu against the German soldier. 

Judo, which was developed out of jujitsu by Jigoro Kano in the 1880s, permeated jujitsu instruction in Edwardian Britain. In 1918, the London Judo Budokwai, the oldest martial arts club in Europe, was formed. Men’s judo has become a regular fixture at the Olympic Games since 1972 while women’s judo became a medal sport in 1992. 

Cat and mouse

Edith’s involvement in the campaign intensified in 1913 with the passing of the Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill-Health) Act 1913 (dubbed the ‘Cat and Mouse Act’) under which hunger-striking suffragettes would be released from jail then rearrested once they had recovered. Headed by Gertrude Harding, a bodyguard of 30 women was formed to protect Emmeline Pankhurst from the clutches of this law. They were trained in jujitsu and carried Indian clubs, which were normally used in exercise classes.

Katherine Willoughby Marshall, a member of Emmeline’s bodyguard team, later recalled:

“Our orders were that as the clock struck nine we were to jump out and attack the seven policemen and detectives, who had been placed in front of the house where Mrs Pankhurst was a prisoner. Behind our taxi was also another lot of bodyguards, and as the clock struck nine, out rushed the bodyguards who had remained at the house. The blue car was directly in front of the front door, and all of us fell on some policeman or detective. I chose a big man with a large mackintosh cape. I knocked his helmet over his eyes and brandished my club about his head. Out came Mrs Pankhurst and into the blue car, which was driven away by a smart woman driver, hell for leather…The bodyguard [and] I got into the waiting taxi and away it went with orders to drive as quickly as possible to Piccadilly Circus. The taxi driver was very interested and wanted to know what it was all about, so I told him that we had helped Mrs Pankhurst to escape. He said he had never seen anything like it and was very intrigued to have been in the rescue.” (Katherine Willoughby Marshall, Suffragette Escapes and Adventures, 1947)

Arguably the best-known image today of a jujitsu suffragette is a Punch cartoon, which features an assertive militant, skilled in martial arts and armed with a dog-whip. The cartoon was prominent earlier this year at the unveiling of a green People’s Plaque dedicated to Edith at her former Islington home. It was later pasted into her scrapbook, which has now disappeared without trace. One wonders what other secrets this elusive piece of suffragette history holds.

Emelyne Godfrey’s books include Masculinity, Crime and Self-Defence in Victorian Literature and Society: Duelling with Danger (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)

#AceNewsDesk report …………………..Published: Oct.21: 2021:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily all of our posts fromTwitter can be found here: https://acetwitternews.wordpress.com/ and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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Ace Daily News

(AUSTRALIA) Parliament Report: Training to deal with sexual assault, bullying and harassment will not happen until September at the earliest, will go for as little as an hour and will be optional for MPs #AceNewsDesk report

#AceNewsReport – July.15: The training was introduced after Liberal staffer Brittany Higgins alleged she was raped in the Parliament House office of then-defence minister Linda Reynolds. The matter is now the subject of a police investigation.

#AceDailyNews says this is how Parliament is going to deal with sexual harrassement claims …One hour, optional: MP’s anti-sexual-assault-bullying-harrassment training revealed

A woman on a stage
Training to deal with sexual assault was promised after Liberal staffer Brittany Higgins alleged she was raped in a minister’s office at Parliament House (Supplied)

Tender documents seeking an organisation to “deliver training to promote a safe and respectful workplace” reveal details of the program.

‘Option to attend’

Parliamentarians will be “given the option to attend” a one-hour face-to-face training session with office managers and chiefs of staff at Parliament House or in electorate offices.

Junior staff will be given a two-hour session that may become mandatory.

By the end of the session, managers and MPs should be able to understand “behaviours [that] do or do not constitute assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment and serious and systemic bullying and harassment”.

They should also be able to understand workplace health and safety obligations as an employer and what is needed to “provide a safe and respectful workplace”.

The training will use practical examples about how to prevent sexual assault, sexual harassment, and serious and systemic bullying, as well as how to support impacted people.

The hour-long session will also detail how to “respond appropriately to a disclosure” and give advice on “reporting options” for incidents.

Trainers told to prepare for learners with little awareness

An investigation into the environment of Parliament House in the wake of Ms Higgins’s alleged sexual assault, called the Review of the Parliamentary Workplace: Responding to Serious Incidents, proposed new ways of dealing with serious incidents.

Those proposed measures were a “trauma-informed support system”, an independent complaints mechanism and a face-to-face tailored workplace education program.

This tender is for the last element.

A woman with blonde hair  looking upward wearing a black and white striped blazer
Attorney-General Michaelia Cash said legislation to make politicians liable for sexual harassment in their workplace would be introduced this year.(ABC News: Adam Kennedy)

The people doing the training are told to prepare for a broad audience that may know little about occupational health and safety, sexual harassment or reporting incidents. Pilot sessions have already been held in parliamentary offices.

Trainers will be required to “demonstrate adaptability and flexibility, given differences across parliamentary offices and differing levels of awareness”: deliver information in a way that is “engaging, non-judgmental and sensitive to dynamics in the room” and present with “a demonstrated awareness of the parliamentary context”.

A statement from the Department of Finance confirmed the details of the training.

“Finance offers induction and ongoing training and support to parliamentarians and … employees in relation to their work, health and safety obligations,” a spokesperson said. “These training modules include workplace bullying and harassment and guidance on sexual harassment.”

The statement went on to note the training was a recommendation from the Foster Report that was designed to “equip parliamentarians, managers and staff to understand their workplace health and safety responsibilities” and give them the tools to deal with unacceptable behaviour.

A number of offices, including the Prime Minister’s, have already participated in pilot training programs focusing on workplace safety.

The approach to market, seeking a company, closes on August 6. The contract will end almost a year later, on June 30, 2022.

#AceNewsDesk report ……Published: July.15: 2021:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily all of our posts fromTwitter can be found here: https://acetwitternews.wordpress.com/ and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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Ace Daily News American History World History & Research Reports

#OnThisDay June.04: 1919: The House of Representatives had voted 304-89 and the Senate 56-25 in favor of the amendment by joint resolution approved the “Woman’s Suffrage Amendment’ and sent it to the states for ratification #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – June.04: Disagreement on whether the best strategy was to pursue enfranchisement through a federal amendment or by individual state campaigns had divided the women’s suffrage movement in 1869:

#OTD Congress Approves Nineteenth Amendment: On June 4, 1919, Congress, by joint resolution, approved the woman’s suffrage amendment and sent it to the states for ratification: National Woman’s Party activists watch Alice Paul sew a star onto the NWP Ratification Flag… National Photo Co., Washington, D.C., ca. 1919-1920. Women of Protest: Photographs from the Records of the National Woman’s Party. Prints & Photograph Division

National Woman’s Party activists watch Alice Paul sew a star onto the NWP Ratification Flag… National Photo Co., Washington, D.C., ca. 1919-1920. Women of Protest: Photographs from the Records of the National Woman’s Party. Prints & Photograph Division

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony worked for a federal amendment under the banner of the National Woman Suffrage Association, while Lucy Stone led the American Woman Suffrage Association’s state-by-state battle for the vote.

In 1890, the two groups united to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). NAWSA combined both techniques to secure voting rights for all American women. A series of well-orchestrated state campaigns took place under the dynamic direction of Carrie Chapman Catt, while the new National Woman’s Party, led by Alice Paul, used more militant tactics to obtain a federal amendment.

In his 1916 book Woman’s Suffrage By Constitutional Amendment, Congressman Henry St. George Tucker of Virginia argued that enfranchising women by constitutional amendment would violate the Constitution:

For three-fourths of the States to attempt to compel the other one-fourth of the States of the Union, by constitutional amendment, to adopt a principle of suffrage believed to be inimical to their institutions, because they may believe it to be of advantage to themselves and righteous as a general doctrine, would be to accomplish their end by subverting a principle which has been recognized from the adoption of the Constitution of the United States to this day, viz., that the right of suffrage — more properly the privilege of suffrage — is a State privilege, emanating from the State, granted by the State, and that can be curtailed alone by the State.

Woman’s Suffrage By Constitutional Amendment, by Henry St. George Tucker. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1916. p 4National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection. Rare Book & Special Collections Division

Henry Wade Rogers, a Yale University law professor, offered a different perspective in “Federal Action and State Rights,” an essay within the 1917 collection Woman Suffrage by Federal Constitutional Amendment, compiled by Carrie Chapman Catt. He argued that previous constitutional amendments set a precedent for the demands of suffragists:

…the Fifteenth Amendment provides that “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude…” If woman suffrage is a sound principle in a republican form of government, and such I believe it to be, there is in my opinion no reason why the States should not be permitted to vote upon an Amendment to the Constitution declaring that no citizen shall be deprived of the right to vote on account of sex.

“Federal Action and State Rights,” by Henry Wade Rogers. In Woman Suffrage by Federal Constitutional Amendment. New York: published by the National Woman Suffrage Publishing Co., Inc., 1917. p 67National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection. Rare Book & Special Collections Division

Rogers’s position prevailed. Women’s active participation in the war effort during World War I and their broadening role in society highlighted the injustice of their political powerlessness. On August 18, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified.

Governor Edwin P. Morrow signing the Anthony Amendment–Ky. was the twenty-fourth state to ratify, January 6, 1920. Frankfort, KY: Gretter Studio. League of Women Voters(U.S.) Records. Prints & Photographs Division

Additional Historical Notes:

On June 4, 1754, twenty-two-year-old Colonel George Washington and his small military force were busy constructing Fort Necessity, east of what is known today as Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Washington’s men built the fort to protect themselves from French troops intent on ousting the British from the territory northwest of the Ohio River. Washington’s troops were surrounded at Fort Necessity, and forced to surrender to the French on July 3, 1754.

George Washington. [The Glasgow Portrait]. Photograph of a painting, [between 1900 and 1920]. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

Washington’s military activity in the area marked the beginning of the French and Indian War, the American phase of a worldwide war between Great Britain and France. Fighting began over issues of local settlement and trade rights in the upper Ohio River Valley. At the core of the conflict was the larger issue of which nation would dominate the heartland of North America.George Washington. [The Glasgow Portrait]. Photograph of a painting, [between 1900 and 1920]. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

The first years of the war were disastrous for the British and colonial Americans. However, the tide changed under England’s Prime Minister William Pitt, who spearheaded Britain’s war effort. After British troops and their colonial counterparts established control of French Canada, the French were forced to the peace table. The Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763, ended the French and Indian War and granted Britain all of France’s territory in North America east of the Mississippi River.

William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, 1756. William Hoare, artist; photograph of a painting, c[between 1900 and 1920]. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

The French and Indian War helped unify the American colonies. Wilderness fighting trained the American colonists militarily. Ironically, however, England’s administration of its expanded empire soon became grounds for a colonial Declaration of Independence. Young Colonel Washington would go on to lead the Continental Army as General Washington during the Revolutionary War. Just twenty years after Britain had secured the territory from France, the 1783 Treaty of Paris granted the vast tract of unsettled territory, the Northwest Territory, to the new United States.

#AceHistoryDesk report ….Published: Jun.05: 2021:

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com