Ace Daily News

(INDIA) Abrahamic Slavery Report: Has been the bane of human history where native populations have been treated with not just disdain but in the most inhumane manner by those who wielded power #AceNewsDesk report

#AceNewsReport – Nov.03: However, Maratha Empire under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj has the credit of being the first empire to abolish slavery as practiced by European invaders in Bharat.

#AceDailyNews says according Hindupost News Report: Maratha empire was first in the world to abolish Abrahamic practice of slavery!

Both Islamists and Europeans who gained power as rulers in Bharat practiced the most inhumane form of slavery. In this light, we shall take a detailed look at the institution of slavery, and study the Maratha initiative of abolishing slavery undertaken by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj as part of his administrative reforms: (Featured Image Source: Wikipedia)

Slavery under Islamic and European powers

It was the Islamic rule under which actual slavery was witnessed in the Bharatiya subcontinent. Prisoners of war were often kept under the watchful eyes of armed guards with their hands and feet chained. Such traumatic conditions were created that they eventually submitted. The subjugated prisoners were made slaves, converted, and sold. Islamic rule was characterized by slavery that was one of the major reasons for the rise in the Islamic population of Bharat.

Women of royal birth who were enslaved by Mohammad Bin Kasim were either sold or ‘presented’ to others by him. Females who were enslaved were often forcibly converted and married off to Arabs. Even Mahmud Ghaznavi enslaved several thousand Hindus who were eventually forced to become Muslims. The Islamist rulers  

The arrival of Europeans in Bharat as traders and the setting up of the East India Company by them brought several of their practices to Bharat. That the Europeans slowly gained political power is all too well-known and this helped them in ‘controlling’ the natives.

To understand how natives in Bharat were treated we must first learn about slavery as it existed in medieval Europe. In medieval Europe, slaves were both Christian and Pagan with the latter being treated with greater disdain.

The bias that the Europeans (both colonial powers and missionaries endorsed by them) had towards Pagans was brought to Hindu Bharat by them. Hindu Dharma was denounced as a Pagan religion by the colonizers who believed that those practicing any form of Pagan religion were ‘evil’ and needed to be subjugated as well as ‘civilized’.

It must, however, be mentioned that Islamic powers that gained a foothold in Bharat also practiced chattel slavery like the subsequent European powers did because both Islam and Christianity enslave those who weren’t adherents of the two Abrahamic religions.

Slave trade was also practiced by the Portuguese, Dutch, British, and French. British government actively encouraged the slave trade thereby making England the leading slave traders in the eighteenth century. Not just the government but the English society including the church, royalty, and the common English citizens favored the slave trade as well. With such overwhelming support for slavery in Britain, it is no wonder that Bharatiyas were subjected to this cruel form of subjugation.

Chhatrapati abolishes slavery 

The Maratha Empire’s administrative machinery ranks as one of the best as it gives us a glimpse of not just Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s far-sightedness but also Hindu administrative practices from earlier times that had been incorporated by Shivray. 

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s coronation came as a blessing for the indigenous Hindu population. One of the fundamental principles of Shiv Chhatrapati’s government was that none of his subjects could be made slaves, much less being sold or transported.

In this regard, Herbert De Jager who worked as the ambassador with the Dutch East India Company (VOC) notes that in Chhatrapati’s qaul (permit) all privileges granted by Sher Khan on behalf of Bijapur were confirmed except the right to buy and transport slaves “since he has established as a fundamental rule of his government, that none of his subjects may be made into slaves, let alone be sold or transported”.

In the same qaul issued to Jager, Chhatrapati makes it amply clear that the slave trade wouldn’t be tolerated at any cost.

“In the days of the Moorish government, it was allowed for you to buy male slaves and female slaves here [the Karnatak], and to transport the same, without anyone preventing that. But now you may not, as long as I am master of these lands, buy male or female slaves, nor transport them. And in case you were to do the same, and would want to bring (slaves) aboard, my men will oppose that and prevent it in all ways and also not allow that they be brought back in your house; this you must as such observe and comply with”.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj put an end not just to the slave trade and slavery but also to the slave mentality that had plagued Hindus.


  1. Slavery in medieval Europe – Science in Poland (Source)
  2. Hindu civilisation and slavery – (Source)

#AceNewsDesk report ………….Published: Nov.03: 2021:

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World History & Research Reports

Archaeological Report: Granada, in Spain’s Andalusia region, was the final remnant of Islamic Iberia known as al-Andalus—a territory that once stretched across most of Spain & Portugal #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.16: In the aftermath, native Andalusians, who were Muslims, were permitted to continue practicing their religion. But after a decade of increasingly hostile religious policing from the new Catholic regime, practicing Islamic traditions and rituals was outlawed. Recent archaeological excavations in Granada, however, have uncovered evidence of Muslim food practices continuing in secret for decades after the conquest.

Archaeology sheds light on the persistence of Muslim cuisine after the Catholic conquest of Granada: In 1492, the city fell to the Catholic conquest.

Archaeology sheds light on the persistence of Muslim cuisine after the Catholic conquest of Granada
Andalusi communal dining bowls known as ‘ataifores’ in El Legado Andalusí, Museum of the Alhambra, Granada. Author provided

The term “Morisco,” which means “little moor,” was used to refer to native Muslims who were forced to convert to Catholicism in 1502, following an edict issued by the Crown of Castile. Similar decrees were issued in the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon in the following decades, which provoked armed uprisings. 

As a result, between 1609 and 1614, the Moriscos were expelled from the various kingdoms of Spain. Muslims had already been expelled from Portugal by the end of the 15th century. So this brought to an end more than eight centuries of Islamic culture in Iberia.

For many, the conquest of Granada is symbolized by the Alhambra. This hilltop fortress, once the palatial residence of the Islamic Nasrid rulers, became a royal court under the new Catholic regime. Today it is the most visited historical monument in Spain and the best-preserved example of medieval Islamic architecture in the world. Now, archaeology provides us with new opportunities to glimpse the conquest’s impact on local Andalusi communities, far beyond the Alhambra’s walls.

Archaeology sheds light on the persistence of Muslim cuisine after the Catholic conquest of Granada
The Alhambra, Granada. Author provided

Uncovering historical remains in Cartuja

Excavations ahead of development on the University of Granada’s campus in Cartuja, a hill on the outskirts of the modern city, uncovered traces of human activity dating back as far as the Neolithic period (3400-3000 BC). 

Between the 13th to 15th centuries AD, the heyday of Islamic Granada, numerous cármenes (small houses with gardens and orchards) and almunias (small palaces belonging to the Nasrid elite) were built on this hill. Then, in the decades following the Catholic conquest, a Carthusian monastery was built here and the surroundings were completely transformed, with many earlier buildings demolished. 

Archaeologists uncovered a well attached to a house and agricultural plot. The well was used as a rubbish dump for the disposal of unwanted construction materials. Other waste was also found, including a unique collection of animal bones dating to the second quarter of the 16th century.

Archaeology sheds light on the persistence of Muslim cuisine after the Catholic conquest of Granada
The campus of the University of Granada at Cartuja. Credit: University of Granada, Author provided

Archaeological traces of culinary practices

Discarded waste from food preparation and consumption in archaeological deposits—mostly animal bone fragments as well as plant remains and ceramic tableware—provide an invaluable record of the culinary practices of past households. Animal bones, in particular, can sometimes be connected with specific diets adhered to by different religious communities. 

The majority of bones in the well in Cartuja derived from sheep, with a small number from cattle. The older age of the animals, mostly castrated males, and the presence of meat-rich parts indicates they were cuts prepared by professional butchers and procured from a market, rather than reared locally by the household.

The ceramics found alongside the bones reflected Andalusi dining practices, which involved a group of people sharing food from large bowls called ataifores. The presence of these bowls rapidly decreased in Granada in the early 16th century. Smaller vessels, reflecting the more individualistic approach to dining preferred by Catholic households, replaced the ataifores. So the combination of large bowls, sheep bones paired and the absence of pig (pork would have been avoided by Muslims) points to a Morisco household.

Archaeology sheds light on the persistence of Muslim cuisine after the Catholic conquest of Granada
Uncovering the animal bones in the well. Author provided

Politicizing and policing dining

The Catholic regime disapproved of these communal dining practices, which were associated with Andalusi Muslim identity, and eventually banned them. The consumption of pork became the most famous expression of policing dining habits by the Holy Office, more popularly known as the Inquisition. Echoes of this dining revolution can be seen today in the role of pork in Spanish cuisine, including in globally exported cured meats such as chorizo and jamón.

Previously focusing on those suspected of clinging to Jewish practices (forbidden in 1492), in the second half of the 16th century, the Inquisition increasingly turned its attention to Moriscos suspected of practicing Islam in secret, which included avoiding pork. In the eyes of the law, these Muslims were officially Catholic so were seen as heretics if they continued to adhere to their earlier faith. Moreover, since religious and political allegiance became equated, they were also regarded as enemies of the state.

The discarded waste from Cartuja, the first such archaeological example from a Morisco household, demonstrates how some Andalusi families clung to their traditional dining culture as their world was transformed, at least for a few decades:

#AceHistoryDesk report ……..Published: Apr.16: 2021:

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