World History & Research Reports

(ENGLAND) Cost of Clothes Murder Report: Could something as mundane as a shirt ever be the motive for murder? What if clothing were more expensive than rent or a mortgage? In 1636 a maidservant, Joan Burs, went out to buy mercury #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Dec.18: It is no wonder, therefore, that there was a thriving black market for second-hand clothing of dubious provenance; much of the clothing worn by the middling and working classes essentially ‘fell off a cart’.

#AceHistoryDesk News Report: Crimes of Fashion: A toxic heavy metal, mercury causes damage to the nervous system and can feel like insects are crawling beneath the skin. Burs baked the poison into a milk posset (which often contained spices and alcohol that might have masked the bitter taste), planning to kill her mistress. She believed that if the lady of the house were dead, she herself might get better clothing. By Sophie Shorland

A public washing ground. English 17th-century engraving. Alamy.
A public washing ground. English 17th-century engraving. Alamy.

The simplest kind of coat cost £1, which was 20 days’ labour for a skilled tradesman. Clothes were sometimes mentioned first in a will, since they could be more expensive than a house. Even the well-off, such as Samuel Pepys, remade and refashioned existing garments as much as they could rather than buying new.

The web of how such things were acquired could become extremely complex, as tinkers hawked both new and second-hand wares, and items were passed on or exchanged – not to mention the markets that thrived on the clothing trade. To supply the country’s insatiable demand for new clothes, thieves might strip drunk people on their way home from a night out, force doors, or even tear down walls. In urban areas in 17th-century England stolen clothes accounted for the most prosecutions of any crime. It was rare for anyone to commit (or attempt to commit) murder over an item of clothing, but the motivations for stealing were broad. Often, they were crimes of opportunity: freshly washed linen hung out to dry on hedges, awaiting capture from any passer-by.

Some thefts, however, were more complicated, involving acting and the tricks of the con-artist’s trade. One cold winter’s night (since it was the little ice age, every winter’s night was cold), a teenage boy was sent on a simple errand. All he had to do was take some clothes – valued at about £4, no small sum – and deliver them to a gentleman across the city. Passing along Watling Street, a woman stopped him and demanded his name, his mother’s name, where he lived and what his errand was. He answered her questions and continued along his journey. Meanwhile, the woman passed all this information on to her partner-in-crime, who set off after the boy, hailing him by name and speaking of his mother. She asked him to buy a shoulder of mutton for her while she waited with the clothes. The boy did so, but returned to find no woman and no clothes. Such operations would have been immensely profitable and difficult to trace, as the stolen goods would have been sold on to the second-hand clothes dealers who supplied the whole country. 

No member of society was safe from the theft of clothes. Perhaps the best-loved, and certainly one of the best-known, celebrities of the Elizabethan period (as well as being Elizabeth I’s personal jester) was the clown Richard Tarlton, known for his witty comebacks and cheeky persona. One night, while Tarlton was downstairs at an inn, wearing only his shirt and nightgown, drinking with some musician friends, a thief crept into his room and stole all his clothes. The story travelled around London to great hilarity and the clown was publicly mocked when he next performed onstage. However, Tarlton had the somewhat macabre last laugh, responding to the crowd with one of the impromptu verses that made him famous. He declared,

When that the theefe shall Pine and lacke,
Then shall I have cloathes to my backe:
And I, together with my fellowes,
May see them ride to Tiborne Gallowes.

Those caught stealing clothes were frequently hanged at Tyburn, known as ‘Tyburn tree’. (Executions were supposed to deter thieving.) Spending their last night at Newgate prison, they would be paraded through the streets in a horse and cart before a boisterous crowd, all jostling for the best view of the condemned and hanging on the thief’s last words. Ironically, the events were prime sites for pickpockets.

While clothing could be the motive for theft or murder because it was so difficult to come by, an accurate description by a witness of the perpetrator’s clothing could secure a conviction. For example, after Francis Terry stole wheat from a barn in 1626 he left a distinctive footprint that made identifying him easy. The print showed three indentations mapped to three nails on the sole of Terry’s right boot. 

After other crimes, witnesses recalled a man in a red coat, wearing a hat with a hole in it, or dressed in grey clothes. Since many people only had one or two outfits, this was seen as positive proof and helped secure a conviction. Finally, in close communities where word of mouth was paramount, any change in clothing could arouse suspicion. Mary Watts gave the game away after allegedly stealing a silver bowl and some clothing, since she bought herself new clothes with the profits, to the shock of the community around her.

People in the 16th and 17th centuries had a relationship with clothing that is difficult to comprehend in an age of fast fashion, where clothes change with the seasons and any change in identity is instantly worn on the body. But, for early modern people, fashion was just as connected to identity. Most could not afford to change their clothes often, but their outfits became part of how they were seen and how they saw themselves. A change of clothing could provoke anger, hilarity, or even thoughts of murder.

#AceHistoryDesk report ………..Published: Dec.18: 2021:

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English History World History & Research Reports

(LONDON) Hammersmith Bridge built in 1897 is in danger of falling down after carrying traffic beginning with horse & cart but strain of increased traffic has taken its toll and at a cost of £270-million and 6yrs before reopening its become care or repair for the council #AceHistoryDesk report

#AceHistoryReport – Apr.05: The bridge is nothing short of a Victorian-era masterpiece. Crafted out of cast iron, it was officially opened in 1887:

Ace says this is a $270 million battle to save an iconic London bridge from falling into the River Thames & in the meantime Transport for London said Uber Boat ferries would run a temporary ferry service from the end of the UK’s summer, carrying up to 800 passengers between both banks during peak times for a cost of $2.80 per fare’

In 2020 MetroUK reported on the condition of the bridge and works needed to be carried out at the time 

But many of the 35 bridges that span the Thames were originally built to carry horse and cart, and the strain of modern-day traffic is taking its toll as the magnificent Hammersmith Bridge is a case in point: It could have crumbled into the Thames below if it had not been urgently shut in April 2019.

updated Yesterday at 10:44pm

A steel suspension bridge spans the Thames River in London.
Hammersmith Bridge in London links Hammersmith on the north side of the Thames to Barnes on the south side.(ABC News: Andrew Greaves)

For more than 130 years it has withstood all that has been thrown at it, but breaking point came after a particularly warm summer saw large cracks worsen.

That, coupled with the weight of 22,000 motor vehicles and 16,000 pedestrians crossing it every day, was too much.

It closed, first to traffic and then to pedestrians, cutting off thousands of residents who rely on it to go about their everyday lives.

Warning signs in front of Hammersmith  Bridge indicate that it is shut.
Hammersmith Bridge has been closed to vehicles since April 2019, and pedestrians and cyclists since August last year.(ABC News: Andrew Greaves)

Toby Gordon-Smith, who uses a wheelchair, is one of them.

He lives a stone’s throw from the bridge in the suburb on Barnes, and can see his office in Hammersmith on the other side of the Thames from his ground floor flat.  

When Hammersmith Bridge was open, it took him 10 minutes to get to the office. Now it can take up to an hour and a half.

“I think I could probably get to my office from 80 per cent of London quicker than I could get to it from here and it’s visible from here. It’s ridiculous,” he told the ABC.

A man in a wheelchair sits in front of the closer Hammersmith Bridge.
Toby Gordon-Smith’s commute to work on the other side of the bridge took 10 minutes. Now it takes up to an hour and a half.(ABC News: Andrew Greaves)

He said the bridge had been poorly maintained since the local Hammersmith and Fulham council was given control of the structure during the Thatcher era.

“We could see this coming,” Mr Gordon-Smith said.

No quick fix

There are no quick fixes for the Hammersmith Bridge – the repair cost is estimated at around $270 million, which amounts to the entire annual budget of the local council, and it could take up to six years to reopen.

And the matter is politically sensitive.

It is not the residents of Hammersmith who are so deeply inconvenienced, but rather those in Barnes and beyond, in the borough of Richmond-upon-Thames.

“This is a major piece of infrastructure in a major international city, it is humiliating for the UK that you can’t even cross a river in the middle of their capital city,” Michelle Coulter, another infuriated resident, told the ABC.

The 10-minute jaunt across the bridge with her children to the classroom is a much more arduous bike ride now. 

“There was a survey done recently and 80 per cent of people who responded said the closure of the bridge had had a negative impact on their mental health,” Ms Coulter said.

“I know of at least one chemotherapy patient who has given up chemo because just doing the journey [to the hospital] is too difficult.”

It is not inconceivable that other bridges could suffer the same fate.

Vauxhall Bridge was closed for months last year when it underwent urgent repairs. London Bridge was also temporarily shut while undergoing work.

And Tower Bridge caused traffic chaos in August 2020 when its 1,200 bascules — the sections which allow the drawbridge to open — became stuck.

A red London double-decker bus crosses Tower Bridge.
London’s iconic Tower Bridge got stuck last August, causing traffic chaos on both sides of the Thames.(ABC News: Andrew Greaves)

“A lot of our structures that we have in this part of the world are approaching or have already exceeded what is known as their original life span,” Luke Prendergast, an Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Nottingham explained, pointing to the unrealistic expectation that bridges are built to last forever. 

“I don’t think we would expect to still have Westminster Bridge in place in 1,000 years’ time, it probably will have been changed by then and so when you’re talking about time scales you need to be a little careful and realistic about what to expect.”

London’s bridges are facing a perfect storm, according to Dr Prendergast with an increase in traffic and climate change putting great strain on the ageing structures.

“We are kind of at a critical juncture,” he said.

“It’s not really a surprise to me that these structures are under distress … you would expect to have to repair damage to our houses after a storm event, for example.”

Repair or replace?

The Hammersmith Bridge needs a great deal of tender loving care. Even rowboats cannot pass beneath it for fear it will collapse.

Repair signs stand in front of Hammersmith Bridge.
The bridge closure has dramatically increased the travel time for locals but there is no agreement on who will fund the upgrade.(ABC News: ANdrew Greaves)

But repairing it is not the only option. Many residents think it simply needs replacing.

“I think it’s a great opportunity to build a contemporary, modern structure, that nods towards the heritage of the original design,” Mr Gordon-Smith said, noting that cast iron is not used for construction anymore.

Michelle Coulter said while a lot of locals would like to see the bridge replaced with a structure fit for purpose that would also come with added complications.

“It is protected and there is a lot of vested interest in keeping that bridge there and repairing it,” she said. 

“But we need to get started with these repairs and we can’t start the repairs until the funding has been agreed.

“At the moment we are just sitting, waiting and nothing is happening.”

Hammersmith Bridge is reflected in the River Thames as the sun sets.
The current Hammersmith Bridge was completed in 1887 after three years of construction.(ABC News: Andrew Greaves)

One plan is for the local council to charge a $5.50 toll to recuperate costs and speed up the restoration process, a hefty bill for a just-over-200-metre stretch of road.

But Mr Gordon-Smith said the Thames tidal flows would be problematic.

“It goes up and down around three metres every day,” Mr Gordon-Smith said, pointing out the ferry capacity would also never be great enough to move the mass of people needing to cross.

Ms Coulter does not believe it is a solution either. 

“We need a bridge to cross that river,” she said.

“And it has to happen soon.”

#AceNewsDesk report ……….Published: Apr.05: 2021: 

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports by and all our posts, also links can be found at here for Twitter and Live Feeds and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com