Categories
Global Warming & Climate Change

#GlobalWarming Rising Temperatures Are Turning Antarctica Green

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โ€˜Ace News Room With Kindness & Loveโค๏ธโค๏ธ’ , Feb.19, 2020 @AceDailyNews 

This just in from the cutting room floor 19/02/2022: 

#ClimateChange Causing Native flowering plant species to grow faster and more densely in the last decade than in the previous 50 years combined: Antarctic pearlwort (pictured) , grew and spread five times faster between 2009 and 2018 than growth rates observed between 1960 and 2009: According to Elizabeth GamilloFebruary 18, 2022 9:00 a.m.

An image of Anarctic Pearwort. The plant has tiny yellow blossoms and is surrounded by rocks.
Liam Quinn via Wikimedia Commons under CC BY-SA 2.0

Rising temperatures over Antarctica’s harsh landscape are causing two native plant species to flourish and spread across the continent. Between 2009 and 2019, plant cover has increased more than in the last 50 years combined and corresponds with rising air temperatures and declining fur seal populations, reports Phoebe Weston for the Guardian. The study published this week in Current Biology is the first to show the accelerated impacts of climate warming in polar ecosystems.

“Antarctica is acting as a canary in a coal mine,” Nicoletta Cannone, an ecologist at the University of Insubria and the study’s lead author, told Gizmodo’s Molly Taft.

Antarctic hair grass, Deschampsia Antarctica, and Antarctic pearlwort, Colobanthus quitensis, are the only two native flowering plant species on the southernmost continent. They can withstand the continent’s frigid temperature and photosynthesize at temperatures below zero while covered in snow, Cannone explained to Gizmodo.  

Researchers focused their observations on these plants on Signy Island and compared them to extensive records detailing plant growth recorded since the 1960s, Gizmodo reports. The team found that the plants are flourishing in a warmer climate. Antarctic pearlwort, a small plant with yellow blossoms, grew five times faster between 2009 and 2018 than growth rates observed between 1960 and 2009, per the Guardian. Hair grass, on the other hand, grew ten times more in the past decade than in other years.

Scientists previously thought that Antarctica was immune to global warming. However, studies have shown that the continent has warmed up three times faster than the rest of the world within the last three decades. The continent has also seen a record amount of ice loss. Between 2008 and 2015, ice loss increased by 36 billion gallons per year, according to Gizmodo.  

The team suspects the primary cause of the plants’ increasing growth is warming summer air. In the past decade, summer temperatures on Signy Island have increased between .36 Fahrenheit to .49 Fahrenheit each year with the exception of one cold spell recorded in 2012,the Guardian reports. In general, Signy Island’s mean annual average air temperature has increased by 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit between 1960 and 2018.

Other factors that may have contributed to the plant growth in Antarctica are dwindling fur seal populations, reports New Scientist’s Alex Wilkins. Fewer fur seals on the island mean fewer plants are trampled over, per the Guardian. But warmer temperatures seem to be the most evident link and could spell trouble for the fragile ecosystem.

An increase of native plant species can change the chemical makeup of the continent’s soils. This can change how organic matter decomposes and degrade the permafrost, per the Guardian. Higher temperatures may also pave the way for invasive species to outcompete native plants. 

“The study shows that further increases in populations of these plant species can be expected as Antarctica warms in future decades, leading to a greening of the region, but that there may also be increased risks to ecosystems associated with the establishment of alien plant species,” Kevin Newsham, a terrestrial ecologist not involved with the study tells the Guardian.

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Categories
World History & Research Reports

HISTORY: Man Adopts Orangutan’s Nature Of Using Tools To Break Stones

#AceHistoryReport – Feb.17: Orangutans instinctively use hammers to strike and sharp stones to cut, a study has found.

#AceHistoryDesk says NATURE & NURTURE according to the researchers, the findings suggest that two major prerequisites for the emergence of stone tool use โ€” striking with stone hammers and recognising sharp stones as cutting tools โ€” may have existed in our last common ancestor with orangutans, 13 million years ago.

Thursday 17 Feb 2022 8:10 am

Researchers tested tool making and use in two captive male orangutans that had not previously been trained or exposed to demonstrations of the activities.

Each animal at Kristiansand Zoo in Norway was provided with a concrete hammer, a stone, and two baited puzzle boxes.

Orangutan study
Loui a juvenile male orangutan, using the core as an active element to vertically strike on the concrete floor of the testing room. (Credits: PA)

The animals needed to cut through a rope or silicon skin in order to access a food reward.

The study found the orangutans spontaneously hit the hammer against the walls and floor of their enclosure, but neither directed strikes towards the stone to create a sharp tool.

ORANGUTAN
This study is the first to report spontaneous stone tool use without close direction in orangutans that have not been socialised by humans. (Credits: @photography_by_leighton / CATER)

In a second experiment, the orangutans were also given a human-made sharp flint flake, which one orangutan used to cut the silicon skin, solving the puzzle.

โ€˜When presented with a human-made flake, a naive orangutan spontaneously used it as a cutting tool to open a puzzle box, providing proof of concept that cutting (or piercing) using sharp-edged tools is within orangutansโ€™ spontaneous repertoire,โ€™ said researchers.

Alba Motes-Rodrigo, at the University of Tubingen in Germany, and colleagues say this is the first demonstration of cutting behaviour in untrained orangutans.

In order to investigate if apes could learn the remaining steps from observing others, researchers showed three female orangutans at Twycross Zoo in the UK how to hit the stone to create a sharp flint flake.

After the demonstrations, one female went on to use the hammer to hit the stone, directing the blows towards the edge as demonstrated.

This study is the first to report spontaneous stone tool use without close direction in orangutans that have not been socialised by humans, researchers say.

The findings suggest that two prerequisites for the emergence of early lithic technologies โ€“ lithic percussion (the removal of sharp stones) and the recognition of sharp-edged stones as cutting tools โ€“ might be deeply rooted in the evolutionary past of humans.

#AceHistoryDesk report …………..Published: Feb.17: 2022:

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Categories
Global Warming & Climate Change

WORLDWIDE: Palm Detectives: These Are The Forgotten Animals Of Deforestation

#AceNewsReport – Feb.12: These brands have products that contain palm oil sourced from mills that are responsible for the destruction of precious habitats of endangered species. Therefore, these brands are directly involved in the extinction of hundreds of endangered species.

#GlobalWarming & #Climate Change Take There TOLL and BUSINESS Steal The Rest: #Boycott4Wildlife And SAVE These Forgotten Animals Of The Secretly Destroyed Rainforest Home For Palm Oil, Soya, Meat, Cocoa And Coffee.

Ariel Toucan Ramphastos ariel
Palm Oil DetectivesAfrica: Species Endangered by Palm Oil Deforestation, Asia: Species Endangered by Palm Oil Deforestation, Papua New Guinea: Species Endangered by Palm Oil Deforestation, South America: Species Endangered by Palm Oil Deforestation, Species Endangered by Palm Oil Deforestationanimal extinction, deforestation, extinction, Forgotten animals, Palm oil, Unsustainable palm oil

They have no formal protections in place

Their entire species are now on the knife-edge of survival 

Can you pledge to protect them by boycotting brands destroying their rainforest home for palm oil, meat, soy, cocoa, coffee?

You certainly didnโ€™t ask for this, none of us did! Can you stop the mega-brands responsible?

#Boycott4Wildlife 


Iโ€™m a Palm Oil Detective, Iโ€™ve pledged join the #Boycott4Wildlife Iโ€™ve stopped buying supermarket brands secretly destroying forests sending these #endangered species extinct! Tweet


Boycott these global mega brands along with all sub-brands causing world-destroying damage 


These brands have products that contain palm oil sourced from mills that are responsible for the destruction of precious habitats of endangered species. Therefore, these brands are directly involved in the extinction of hundreds of endangered species.



Here are some palm oil free alternatives to buy instead.

Contribute

  1. Creatives: Promote your creative business and use your creative expertise to raise awareness and join the fight to save endangered species. Join us!
  2. Conservationists: Showcase your conservation work and activism, blog about the urgent issues that are vital right now. Find out more!
  3. Animal lovers: Big supermarket brands are directly contributing to this speciesโ€™ extinction by destroying forests. You can join the #Boycott4Wildlife by sharing information from this website and boycotting brands in the supermarket.

Published by Palm Oil Detectives

Hi, Iโ€™m Palm Oil Detectiveโ€™s Editor in Chief. Palm Oil Detectives is partly a consumer website about palm oil in products and partly an online community for writers, scientists, conservationists, artists and musicians to showcase their work and express their love for endangered species. I have a strong voice for creatures great and small threatened by deforestation. With our collective power we can shift the greed of the retail and industrial agriculture sectors and through strong campaigning we can stop them cutting down forests. Be bold! Be courageous! Join the #Boycott4Wildlife and stand up for the animals with your supermarket choices.

#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Feb.12: 2022:

Editor says โ€ฆSterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily all of our posts fromTwitter can be found here: https://acetwitternews.wordpress.com/ and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

Categories
Ace Daily News

ARCTIC: Giant Sponge Gardens Discovered Beneath Sea On Top Of Extinct Volcanoes

#AceNewsReport – Feb.10: Researchers have discovered the secret to survival of “massive” sponge gardens thriving on top of a ridge of extinct volcanoes beneath the ocean, 350 kilometres from the North Pole.

#AceNewsDesk says giant sponge gardens discovered on the peaks of extinct volcanoes under Arctic sea ice: It’s a region permanently covered in sea ice in one of the most oligotrophic seas on the planet. An oligotrophic sea is one generally devoid of plant life and very high in dissolved oxygen according to ABC (Science) News

Sponges and sea stars.
The sponge gardens are the most northerly found yet and cover an area more than 35 kilometres long.(Supplied: Alfred Wegener Institute)

But in a paper published today in Nature Communications, they reveal that the sponges survive by getting nutrients from dead sea life that once inhabited the seamounts, according to lead author Teresa Morganti from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology.

Though the scientists found the sponges a few years ago, they weren’t able to figure out how they were living in such a hostile environment.

“The extinct community was mostly composed of tubeworms and other polychaetes [bristle worms],” Dr Morganti said.

So how was there a community of animals living there before, and what happened to them?

The researchers concluded that there was an underwater seep of gases like sulfide and methane from the volcanoes, until around 2,000 to 3,000 years ago.

“The previous community โ€ฆ relied on the chemical compounds from the seepage as energy and food sources,” Dr Morganti said.

“Once the volcanoes’ activity ceased, [they] died out.”

But the sponges inhabiting the area today have a microbial symbiont โ€” a micro-organism that can extract carbon and nitrogen from the bodies of the animals that once lived there.

In doing so, these microbial symbionts provide nutrients to the sponges, and the sponges in turn provide structure, and also further nutrients to their symbionts as they filter the passing water.

“Both benefit from each other,” Dr Morganti said.

The find is the most northerly sponge garden ever discovered, the scientists said.

It’s also the “densest sponge community found in the Boreal-Arctic regions”, according to Dr Morganti.

Sponges
The sponges were discovered more than 500 metres below the frozen surface.(Supplied: Alfred Wegener Institute)

The seamounts consist of three extinct volcanic peaks, known collectively as the Langseth Ridge.

The ridge is about 125 kilometres long with the largest peak rising 2,500 metres off the seafloor to about 570 metres below the ocean surface.

The first sponge from the area was “casually” collected back in 2011, and a proper expedition of the seamount was launched in 2016.

That expedition discovered sponge gardens covering an area more than 35 kilometres long and  nearly 10 kilometres across at their widest point.

Solving the food supply mystery

But scientists then had to answer the question of how an area that should be virtually devoid of life was supporting such a rich diversity. 

“Our study here was focused on solving the mystery around the food source,” Dr Morganti said.

“It took quite a while because we tested so many different hypotheses and used very novel methods in dating and identifying the food web structure, and the symbionts and their functions.”

Along with the sponges, the researchers identified shrimp, starfish, and soft corals. They estimated around 60 species are inhabiting the seamounts in all.

But the physical conditions that have led to the formation of this unique environment are going to change quite dramatically.

The IPCC predicts that at 2 degrees Celsius of warming, the Arctic will experience ice-free summers around once every 10 years.

More sunlight penetrating the ocean could lead to an increase in the amount of food reaching the sponge gardens, Dr Morganti said.

“Such change might not harm these sponges themselves but rather favour the settlement of other species,” she said.

The researchers are calling for increased marine protection zones for the Arctic to be put in place before receding sea ice opens it up for further exploitation.

“The sea ice naturally protects environments from overfishing.”

“But when it recedes, it’s important to know which biodiversity hotspots are to be protected, especially from [bottom] trawling that is destructive for such [immobile] forms of life,” Dr Morganti said.

#AceNewsDesk report ……….Published: Feb.10: 2022:

Editor says โ€ฆSterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily all of our posts fromTwitter can be found here: https://acetwitternews.wordpress.com/ and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com