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#OTD 1789: Final day United States Congress passed an Act to Recognise & Adapt to the Constitution of the USA

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – On September 29, 1789, the final day of its first session, the United States Congress passed “An act to recognize and adapt to the Constitution of the United States, the establishment of the troops raised under the resolves of the United States in Congress assembled.”

The act legalized the existing U.S. Army, a small force inherited from the Continental Congress that had been created under the Articles of Confederation.Infantry: Continental Army, 1779-1783, IV / H.A. Ogden; lith. by G.H. Buek & Co., N.Y. Henry Alexander Ogden, artist; c1897. Prints & Photographs Division

Although the Constitution of the United States charged Congress with raising and regulating military forces, newly elected House and Senate members delayed acting on this provision. Busy organising the federal government and debating the location of the new capital, Congress neglected dealing with the issue of military forces until prodded by President and Commander in Chief George Washington.

On August 7, Washington reminded both Houses that the provision for troops made under the Continental Congress must be superseded by action under the new Constitution. The establishment of United States troops was an issue, the president wrote:

…the national importance and necessity of which I am deeply impressed; I mean some uniform and effective system for the Militia of the United States. It is unnecessary to offer arguments in recommendation of a measure, on which the honor, safety and well being of our Country so evidently and essentially depend: But it may not be amiss to observe that I am particularly anxious it should receive an early attention as circumstances will admit; because it is now in our power to avail ourselves of the military knowledge disseminated throughout the several States by means of the many well instructed Officers and soldiers of the late Army; a resource which is daily diminishing by deaths and other causes.

George Washington to Congress, August 7, 1789, Indian Affairs. Series 2, Letterbooks 1754-1799. Letterbook 25, April 6, 1789 – March 4, 1791. George Washington Papers. Manuscript Divisionnone

Portrait of Henry Knox, Secretary of War. Constantino Brumidi, artist; photograph of painting by Lycurgus S. Glover, c1904 [painting in the President’s room of the United States Capitol]. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

This appeal, delivered by Secretary of War Henry Knox, was not immediately acted upon. Three days later, on August 10, Washington again urged Congress to address the issue. Finally, on September 29, 1789, the House of Representatives and the Senate passed the act that officially established the army under the Constitution of the United States.

Lieutenant John F. Kennedy: In October 1941, John F. Kennedy was appointed an ensign in the United States Naval Reserve, joining the staff of the Office of Naval Intelligence.

After entering the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center in Melville, Rhode Island, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant (junior grade) in October 1942, and shortly thereafter ordered to report for duty as commanding officer of a motor torpedo boat in Panama. Prior to his departure, playwright Clare Boothe Luce, a close friend of the Kennedy family, sent the young naval officer a good luck coin that once belonged to her mother. On September 29, 1942, Kennedy wrote to Luce thanking her for sharing such an important token with him.

John F. Kennedy, head-and-shoulders portrait,…] [between 1960-1970]. Prints & Photographs Division

I came home yesterday and Dad gave me your letter with the gold coin. The coin is now fastened to my identification tag and will be there, I hope, for the duration. I couldn’t have been more pleased. Good luck is a commodity in rather large demand these days and I feel you have given me a particularly potent bit of it.

Letter, John F. Kennedy to Clare Boothe Luce thanking the congresswoman for a good luck coin, 29 September [1942]. (Clare Boothe Luce Papers). Manuscript Division

Kennedy transferred to the Pacific theater in February 1943 and became commanding officer of PT109 in April, operating against the Japanese near the island of New Georgia in the Solomon Islands. On the night of August 1-2, Kennedy’s boat was rammed and cut in two by a Japanese destroyer. Although he was injured during the attack, Kennedy managed to locate one of his injured crew and lead him to safety; most of his crew survived. He later received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his heroism.

A few months later, Kennedy again wrote to Luce. With his note, he enclosed a gadget, originally intended to be a letter opener, made “from a Jap 51 cal. bullet and the steel from a fitting on my boat, part of which drifted onto an island.” He concluded his message with a word of thanks for Luce’s earlier gift:

With it goes my sincere thanks for your good-luck piece, which did service above and beyond its routine duties during a rather busy period.

John F. Kennedy to Clare Boothe Luce, October 20, 1943.Clare Boothe Luce Papers (correspondence, box 116). Manuscript Divisionnone

No stranger to the front line herself, Luce covered World War II as a journalist. She published Europe in the Spring, an anti-isolationist account of her experiences in embattled Europe, in 1940—in the early days of World War II.

Portrait of Clare Boothe Luce. Carl Van Vechten, photographer, Dec. 9, 1932. Van Vechten Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.29:  2022:

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#OTD 1977: President Jimmy Carter and Panamanian Chief of Government Omar Torrijos signed the Panama Canal Treaty & Neutrality Treaty

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Also known as the Carter-Torrijos Treaty, this agreement relinquished American control over the canal and transferred authority to the Panama Canal Authority on December 31, 1999.

Pedro Miguel Locks [Panama Canal]. Gordon Panoramic Photo Co. 1913. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

On May 4, 1904, Panama granted the United States the right to build and operate the canal and control the five miles of land on either side of the water passage in exchange for annual payments. President Theodore Roosevelt viewed building the canal as indispensable for securing U.S. military and commercial power.

Construction on the canal began in 1904 and the canal opened to traffic on August 15, 1914. Ships passing through the lakes and locks travel approximately 51 miles between the Atlantic Ocean entrance and the Pacific Ocean entrance, eliminating the lengthy and often precarious 8,000-nautical-mile trip around South America’s Cape Horn.

Look what they did with the Pay-no-more Canal…When they started to build, they said it would bring New York a thousand miles closer to San Francisco. Why it’s ridiculous. We spent four hundred million dollars, the canal is nearly finished, and New York is still in the same place.

The Speaker of the House: a monologue, Part 3, by Aaron Hoffman. 1914. Manuscript Playscripts. Rare Book Selections. Rare Book & Special Collections Divisionnone

Pedro Miguel Locks [Panama Canal]. Gordon Panoramic Photo Co. 1913. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

America celebrated the opening of the canal at the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. The event marked both the triumph of the waterway’s engineering and the emergence of a modern San Francisco newly rebuilt after the devastating 1906 earthquake and fire.

Panama Pacific International Exposition. J. D. Givens, photographer, 1915. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division
#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.07: 2022:

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#OTD 1819: Allan Pinkerton (1819-84), founder of Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency, was born in Glasgow, Scotland

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Pinkerton emigrated to the United States in 1842 and eventually established a barrel-making shop in a small town outside of Chicago.

The Late Allan Pinkerton. Illustration from Harper’s Weekly, July 12, 1884. p.452. Prints & Photographs Division

He was an ardent abolitionist, and his shop functioned as a “station” for escaped slaves traveling the Underground Railroad to freedom in the North.

Pinkerton’s career as a detective began by chance when he discovered a gang of counterfeiters operating in an area where he was gathering wood. His assistance—first in arresting these men and then another counterfeiter, led to his appointment as deputy sheriff of Kane County, Illinois, and, later, as Chicago’s first full-time detective.

Secret Service by Wm Gillette. “It Looks Like a Plot on Our Telegraph Lines!” New York: Strobridge & Co. Lith, c1896. Posters: Performing Arts Posters.Prints & Photographs Division

Pinkerton left his job with the Chicago police force to start his own detective agency. One of the first of its kind, this predecessor to Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency provided an array of private detective services—specializing in the capture of train robbers and counterfeiters and in providing private security services for a variety of industries. By the 1870s, Pinkerton’s growing agency had accumulated an extensive collection of criminal dossiers and mug shots that became a model for other police forces.

In 1861, while investigating a railway case, Pinkerton uncovered an apparent assassination plot against Abraham Lincoln. It was believed that conspirators intended to kill Lincoln in Baltimore during a stop along the way to his inauguration. Pinkerton warned Lincoln of the threat, and the president-elect’s itinerary was changed so that he passed through the city secretly at night.

Union General George McClellan later hired Pinkerton to organize a “secret service” to obtain military information in the Southern states during the Civil War. Pinkerton sent agents into Kentucky and West Virginia, and, traveling under the pseudonym “Major E. J. Allen,” performed his own investigative work in Tennessee, Georgia, and Mississippi.

After McClellan was replaced as the commander of the Army of the Potomac in 1862, Pinkerton resumed the management of his detective agency. The agency expanded after the Civil War, opening offices in New York City (1865) and Philadelphia (1866). As his business grew, Pinkerton drew public attention to its work by producing a series of popular “true crime” stories.

Antietam, Md. Allan Pinkerton (“E. J. Allen”) of the Secret Service on Horseback. Alexander Gardner, photographer, September 1862. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division
Antietam Md. Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand; another view. Alexander Gardner, photographer, October 3, 1862. Civil War Glass Negatives and Related Prints. Prints & Photographs Division

In time, because Pinkerton’s Agency was often hired by industrialists to provide intelligence information on union-organizing efforts, Pinkerton guards and agents gained notoriety as strikebreakers. Notable confrontations between Pinkerton agents and laborers include the 1886 Haymarket Riot and the 1892 Homestead Strike, both of which occurred after Pinkerton’s death in 1884.

Illinois-The Anarchist-Labor Troubles in Chicago, from a sketch by C. Bunnell. Illus. in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, May 15, 1886. Prints & Photographs Division
The Labor Troubles at Homestead, Pa.- Attack of the Strikers and Their Sympathizers… Drawn by Miss G. A. Davis from a sketch by C. Upham; illus. in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly, July 14, 1892. Prints & Photographs Division
#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Aug.25: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1790: John Carroll became the first bishop of the Roman Catholic Church & 1860: Florence Mabel Kling DeWolfe Harding Became First Lady

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Florence Mabel Kling DeWolfe Harding, First Lady during the Warren G. Harding administration (1921-23), was born on August 15, 1860. An outspoken supporter of woman suffrage, Mrs. Harding cast her ballot in the presidential campaign of 1920 for her husband. She was the first American First Lady afforded that right, as the Nineteenth Amendment had been ratified the previous summer.

I owe allegiance to only one boss—and she sits right over there in that box. She’s a mighty good one too.

Warren G. Harding, campaign speech, 1910; quoted in Lewis L. Gould, ed., American First Ladies. (New York: Garland, 1996), 373.none

Mrs. Warren G. Harding, Three-quarter Length Portrait…]. Underwood & Underwood Studios, [between 1920 and 1923]. Prints & Photographs Division

The eldest child of a prosperous Marion, Ohio, capitalist, Florence Kling learned about business from her father. When Warren Harding suffered a lengthy illness a year after their 1891 marriage, she put these skills to work by taking over his duties as owner/operator of the Marion Daily Star. When he recovered, she remained as business and circulation manager. “I went down there intending to help out for a few days,” she later recalled, “and stayed fourteen years.” Under Mrs. Harding’s skillful administration, the newspaper prospered.

A mother (divorced, with a young son from a first marriage), wife, and business manager, Florence Harding was one of the first women to bring a professional identity to the role of First Lady. In 1914, Warren Harding entered the U.S. Senate race at her urging. When Harding was nominated as the Republican candidate for president in 1920, “The Duchess,” as he referred to his wife, campaigned enthusiastically for his election. “I have only one real hobby—my husband,” said Mrs. Harding. President Harding openly acknowledged the importance of his wife to his political success.

During President Woodrow Wilson’s illness the White House had been closed to the public. Mrs. Harding reopened the house and gardens and presided over a crowded social calendar, graciously performing her ceremonial duties as First Lady. She talked freely, though not for quotation, with reporters and initiated the practice of providing “photo opportunities” to the White House press corps. The Hardings gave lavish garden parties to aid World War I veterans and were the first presidential couple to regularly show films after dinner to their White House guests. In her personal style and enthusiasm for automobiles and airplane adventures, Florence Kling Harding embodied the exuberant spirit of the 1920s. She also made the welfare of wounded and hospitalized veterans her personal cause, getting to know many of the patients at Walter Reed Army Hospital by name, encouraging individual veterans to contact her about problems with their care, and becoming directly involved in the affairs of the Veterans Bureau.

Mrs. Warren G. Harding Standing with Soldier at Walter Reed Hospital]. March 30, 1921. Prints & Photographs Division

Florence Harding continued to exercise powerful political influence over her husband during his presidency. “He does well when he listens to me and poorly when he does not,” she once confided to a White House staffer. When President Harding died suddenly in San Francisco on August 2, 1923, the scandals that ruined his administration were beginning to break; the discovery of corruption in the Veterans Bureau was particularly upsetting to the First Lady. Mrs. Harding accompanied her husband’s body back across country by train while Vice President Calvin Coolidge assumed the presidency. Long plagued by repeated bouts of kidney disease, Florence Kling Harding passed away on November 21, 1924.

Warren G. Harding, Half-length Portrait…; with his Wife in Garden(?)]. October 25, 1920. Prints & Photographs Division

John Carroll: First Bishop of Baltimore: On August 15, 1790, John Carroll became the first bishop of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States.

The son of a wealthy Catholic merchant, Carroll was born in Upper Marlboro, Maryland, in 17361 and had significant Revolutionary connections. His cousin, Charles Carroll, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence; his brother, Daniel Carroll, signed the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.

Wherefore it having reached our ears that in the flourishing commonwealth of the Thirteen American States many faithful Christians united in communion with the chair of Peter, in which the centre of Catholic unity is fixed…earnestly desire that a Bishop may be appointed over them…We willingly embraced this opportunity which the grace of Almighty God has afforded us to provide those distant regions with the comfort and ministry of a Catholic Bishop.

A Short Account of the Establishment of the New See of Baltimore in Maryland…. Charles Plowden; London: J.P. Coghlan, 1790. p12-13. The Capital and the Bay: Narratives of Washington and the Chesapeake Bay Region, 1600 to 1925none

Archbishop John Carroll. Gilbert Stuart, artist. Reproduced in Social Life in the Early Republic. By Anne Hollingsworth Wharton; Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1902. After p84. The Capital and the Bay: Narratives of Washington and the Chesapeake Bay Region, ca. 1600 to 1925

After receiving a Jesuit education at the Bohemia Academy in Cecil County, Maryland, Carroll studied abroad at the English-language Jesuit College of St. Omer in Flanders. He was ordained a Jesuit priest in 1761 and remained in Europe teaching philosophy and theology. When Pope Clement XIV dissolved the Jesuit order in 1773, Carroll returned to Maryland, serving local Catholics from a chapel built on his family’s estate at Rock Creek, near present-day Forest Glen. In 1776, he took part in a diplomatic mission to Canada on behalf of the Continental Congress. Though the effort failed to win over Canada to the American cause, Carroll gained the friendship of Benjamin Franklin, who was important to his later success.

In June 1783, a small group of priests called together by Carroll met at the chapel at White Marsh (now known as Sacred Heart Church) in Bowie, Maryland, to discuss how the Catholic Church in the new United States would be governed and its property managed. The group drew up a constitution and petitioned Rome to appoint John Lewis, former superior of the Jesuits in Maryland, as the superior of the American missions. However, and in part through the influence of then-U.S. minister to France Benjamin Franklin, the Vatican appointed John Carroll instead.

Sacred Heart Church at Whitemarsh, Bowie, Maryland. Jack Boucher, photographer, June 26, 1990. Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American and Engineering Record/Historic American Landscapes Survey. Prints & Photographs Division

In 1784, John Carroll authored An address to the Roman Catholics of the United States of America. By a Catholic Clergyman. Carroll and his fellow priests were, after the American Revolution, concerned that the Catholic Church be accepted by Americans, who were primarily Protestant and had a history of distrusting Catholic allegiance to the Pope. During further meetings at White Marsh, the need emerged for the appointment of an American bishop—one who was, in the spirit of the new nation, elected in a democratic fashion by American priests. In a petition dated March 12, 1788, priests John Carroll, Robert Molyneux, and John Ashton asked that an American diocese be created and that the selection of bishop be left to its clergy. The petition was granted and on May 18, 1789, John Carroll was elected by twenty-four out of twenty-six possible votes. Baltimorewas selected as the seat of the American Catholic Church, where St. Mary’s Seminary was soon established. It was during these years that an academy (later college) at Georgetown was founded as well.

Carroll traveled to England where he was consecrated a bishop at Lulworth Castle, England, home of his good friend Thomas Weld. Bishop Carroll returned to Baltimore on December 7, 1790, where he took up residence and preached his first sermon at St. Peter’s church, which served as Baltimore’s temporary cathedral until a basilica designed by architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe could be constructed.

John Carroll is considered the architect of the Maryland Catholic tradition, stressing ecumenicalism and civic participation across religious lines. He was elevated to archbishop of Baltimore in 1808, overseeing Catholics in five U.S. dioceses as well as the Danish West Indies. While he had quietly restored the Jesuits to Maryland through an affiliation with the still-extant Russian community, Carroll lived to see the worldwide restoration of the order by Rome in 1814. Archbishop John Carroll died in December 1815, six years before the first permanent U.S. cathedral at Baltimore was consecrated.

Design Drawing for Stained Glass Window: AD 1790, John Carroll, First Bishop of Baltimore, First N. American Seminary, St. Mary’s Baltimore AD 1800. Drawing: watercolor, graphite, ink; J. & R. Lamb Studios, 1950-90. Lamb Studios Archive. Prints & Photographs Division
  1. With the intention of more accurately reflecting a solar year, Britain and its colonies replaced the Julian (Old Style) calendar with the Gregorian calendar in 1752, adjusting all dates forward by eleven days. At the same time, New Year’s Day was moved from March 25 to January 1. John Carroll’s January 8, 1735, birth date therefore became the New Style date of January 19, 1736. (Return to text)

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Aug.15:  2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1942: Stalin drafted a memorandum to Churchill & Roosevelt opposing their decision not to invade Western Europe at that time.

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – On August 13, 1942, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin drafted a memorandum to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt opposing their decision not to invade Western Europe at that time.

In the memo, Stalin, whose beleaguered Russian army had been contending with a German invasion for over a year, impressed upon the Americans and the British the necessity of relieving the pressure on Russia’s western front. Stalin pressed the Allies to open a second front against Hitler in Europe. Concluding that this action would be militarily unsound for them to attempt in 1942, England and the U.S. chose instead to invade North Africa.

The alliance between Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union began to unravel soon after the German threat was vanquished in 1945. Indications of the depth of the tensions between the allies had surfaced in February of that year at the Black Sea resort of Yalta, where Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt met to plan the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany.

Memo from Stalin, Aide memoire in Russian, August 13, 1942. Memory Gallery C. American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Manuscript Division.

Also on the agenda was the question of how to deal with the defeated or liberated countries of Eastern Europe. Roosevelt was later criticized for failing to take greater measures at this meeting to prevent Stalin from seizing former German territory in Eastern Europe.

Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill on portico of Russian Embassy in Teheran, during conference—Nov. 28 – Dec. 1, 1943. U.S. Signal Corps, 1943. Presidents of the United States: Selected Images From the Collections of the Library of Congress. Prints & Photographs Division.

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Aug.13: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1923: Calvin Coolidge took the presidential oath entering an office of discredited corruption scandals

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Calvin Coolidge took the presidential oath of office on August 3, 1923, after the unexpected death in office of President Warren Harding. The new president inherited an administration plagued and discredited by corruption scandals.

After all, the chief business of the American people is business.

President Calvin Coolidge, address before the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Washington, D.C., January 17, 1925. Foundations of the Republic (1926), 187.none

In the two remaining years of this term, Coolidge, long recognized for his own frugality and moderation, worked to restore the administration’s image and regain the public’s trust. He went on to win the presidential election of 1924 in his own right.

Calvin Coolidge,…wearing black armband in mourning for President Harding. [Aug. 4, 1923]. National Photo Company Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

Coolidge believed that government should interfere as little as possible with business and industry. His administration supported tax reductions for U.S. businesses as well as high protective tariffs in support of U.S. goods—which were being produced in greater quantities than ever before. Technological and managerial innovations, improvements in the methods of production, and growing distribution networks made consumer items more generally available. Many Americans purchased cars and radios, vacuum cleaners, and washing machines—taking advantage of increasingly obtainable consumer credit.

Vacuum cleaners on display at the J. C. Harding & Co. Store, probably in Washington, D.C.. [between 1909-32]. National Photo Company Collection. Prints & Photographs Division
Raleigh Haberdasher show window, Washington, D.C. [ca. 1925]. National Photo Company Collection. Prints & Photographs Division
Automobiles in window of the Washington-Cadillac Co., Washington, D.C. [1927]. National Photo Company Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

Some groups did not participate fully in the emergent consumer economy, notably both African-American and white farmers as well as immigrants. While one-fifth of the American population made their living on the land, rural poverty was widespread. Despite agricultural overproduction and successive attempts in Congress to provide relief, the agricultural economy of the 1920s experienced an ongoing depression. Large surpluses were accompanied by falling prices at a time when American farmers were burdened by heavy debt. Between 1920 and 1932, one in four farms was sold to meet financial obligations and many farmers migrated to urban areas.

Restrictive immigration laws, aided by a resurgence of nativism in America in the 1920s, contributed to an atmosphere hostile to immigrants. The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. The National Origins Act of 1924 completely excluded Japanese and other Asian immigrants and further reduced those admitted from southern and eastern Europe.Visitin’ ‘Round at Coolidge Corners. Filmed in Plymouth Notch, Vermont. United States: [Pathe?, 1924}. Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, 1921-1929. Motion Picture, Broadcasting & Recorded Sound Division

The economic growth of the 1920s spurred the rise of consumer organizations and campaigns. Some, such as the Truth-in-Advertising Movement, which pursued ethics and self-regulation in advertising, were industry-based. Other campaigns and organizations sought to educate consumers. The Better Homes Movement celebrated home ownership, home maintenance and improvement, and home decoration in towns and cities across the country. The Thrift Movement sought to teach children and citizens how to save and spend wisely. Lastly, there were campaigns such as the Playground Movement which began in response to popular anxieties about material excess, misuse of leisure time, and the loss of traditional values.

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On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus set out on his first voyage to what came to be known as the New World. With three ships and a crew of ninety, Columbus hoped to find a western route to the Far East. Instead, the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria landed in the Bahama Islands.Replica of Santa Maria. c1904. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

If the winds are favorable the distance is traveled quickly; but no one must start without being sure of the weather, and this assurance can be obtained by observing the sky, and finding out that this is very clear and that the wind comes from the side of the northern star, and blows for some days always in the same direction.

Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, February 6, 1502. In The Authentic Letters of Columbus. William Eleroy Curtis [introduction]; (Chicago: Field Columbian Museum, May 1895), I, no. 2:125.none

Columbus set sail in an era of maritime advances, charting his route with the aid of a mariner’s compass, an astrolabe, a cross-staff, and a quadrant. The most popular map for mariners at the time was Ptolemy’s Geographia or Cosmographia, printed in 1482 but originally compiled by the Alexandrian geographer, astronomer, and mathematician Claudius Ptolemy in the second century A.D.Cosmographia. Claudius Ptolemy; translated by Jacopo d’Angelo; edited by Nicolaus Germanus; Ulm, Lienhart Holle, 16 July (XVII Kal. Aug.) 1482. Thacher Collection. Rare Book Selections. Rare Book & Special Collections Division

Early on the morning of October 12, 1492, a crew member spotted land. At daylight, Columbus went ashore and planted the flag of his sponsors, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, on the Bahamian island of Guanahaní. Columbus eventually created a base of operations for his first and second trips on the island the Europeans called Hispaniola, now the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Columbus’ remains are believed to have been buried in the Cathedral of Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic following his death in 1506.

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Aug.03: 2022: 
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#OTD 1876: President Andrew Johnson, Colorado Entered the Union

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – After its first bid for statehood was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson, Colorado entered the Union on August 1, 1876, the year the United States celebrated its centennial. Thus, the thirty-eighth state is known as the Centennial State.

Ute Indian Camp, Garden of the Gods, Shan Kive, 1913. [Colorado]. Stewart Brothers, c1913. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

Among the early inhabitants of the land encompassed by Colorado were the Anasazi cliff dwellers. They were forced by drought and other factors to abandon their Mesa Verde homes in the late 1200s. At the time of European exploration and settlement Colorado’s population was made up of Arapaho, Cheyenne, and Ute peoples. Their territory was explored by the Spanish who, after Napoleon’s conquest of Spain, turned over its title to the French.

The United States acquired the eastern part of Colorado in 1803 through the Louisiana Purchase and the western portion in 1848 through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In 1850, the federal government also purchased a Texas claim in Colorado. This combined property eventually became the Colorado Territory in 1861.

Rocks and stream along the Million Dollar Highway, Ouray County, Colorado. Russell Lee, photographer, Oct., 1940. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Color Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

The 1858 discovery of gold caused a population influx in Colorado, just as it had in California in 1849. After Horace Greeley notified readers of the New-York Tribune of this news, as many as 5,000 miners per week poured into the territory. By 1900 gold production had reached over $20,000,000 annually at Cripple Creek, one of the world’s richest gold camps.

Colorado proved rich in other minerals as well, and smelting ores to separate gold and other valuable metals became commercially profitable. As late as the 1940s, mountain streams in Ouray County, Colorado, ran yellow because of the tailings from the gold mills, as documented by Farm Security Administration photographer Russell Lee.

Railroad lines with names such as the Denver, Cripple Creek and Southwestern Railroad brought even more travelers and settlers to Colorado. Railroad traveler Sue A. Pike Sanders recorded the following impressions in her journal of an overnight stay in Denver in the summer of 1886:

Denver is a beautiful city of some 75,000 inhabitants, built mostly of stone and brick. It contains the usual amount of fine buildings. One in particular we are lead to observe, and that, Tabor’s Opera House, the largest in the world, excepting one in Paris, France. This building cost $850,000. The County Court House occupies an entire block, with buildings and ground. There are two large smelting works here…

A Journey to, on and from the “Golden Shore,” by Sue A. Sanders. Delavan, Ill.: Times Printing Office, 1887. “California as I Saw It”: First-Person Narratives of California’s Early Years, 1849 to 1900. General Collectionsnone

Tabor Opera House. [Denver (Colo.)] [Between 1860 and 1900]. Stereograph Cards. Prints & Photographs Division

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Aug.01: 2022: 

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1847: The American Colonization Society Declares Liberia an Independent Republic

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Joseph Jenkins Roberts declared Liberia, formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society, an independent republic on July 26, 1847. He was elected the first president of the republic in 1848.

Joseph Jenkins Roberts. [President of Liberia]. Augustus Washington, original photographer, ca. 1851. Daguerreotypes. Prints & Photographs Division

A native of Petersburg, Virginia, Roberts immigrated to Liberia in 1829 at the age of twenty under the auspices of the American Colonization Society. The Society was organized in late December 1816 by a group that included Henry Clay, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Francis Scott Key, Bushrod Washington, and Daniel Webster. The colonization scheme, controversial from the outset among blacks and whites alike, was conceived as an alternative to emancipation. The idea grew from the recognition of the difficulty that the Republic would face should it choose the path of becoming an integrated nation.

Jane Roberts. [First Lady of Liberia]. Augustus Washington, original photographer, [between 1851 and 1860]. Daguerreotypes. Prints & Photographs Division.

This map was compiled chiefly from the surveys and observations of the Reverend Jehudi Ashmun, who led the settlement of what was to become the country of Liberia.

Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the Colony of Liberia. Philadelphia Pa.: A. Finley, 1830. Maps of Liberia, 1830 to 1870. Geography & Map Division.

With difficulty, funds were found for the venture and, after an initial unsuccessful attempt, a colony was finally founded in Mesurado Bay on Providence Island in 1822. Reverend Ashmun negotiated with the native people to grant a tract of land at Cape Mesurado at the mouth of the St. Pauls River.

Expansion of the original colony at times resulted in conflict with indigenous Africans. The colony grew as it became a home for freed African Americans and slaves released from the West Indies and from slave ships as well as many native tribal people. Nevertheless, confrontations between the descendants of African Americans and indigenous tribes have remained a factor in Liberian politics through the twentieth century.

Learn more about the colonization movement in the online exhibition The African-American Mosaic: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History & Culture. The first section of the exhibition, entitled “Colonization,” includes an overview of the origins of the American Colonization Society and the founding and early history of Liberia. Of particular interest is a treaty between the American Colonization Society and African tribal leaders for rights to tribal lands along the Grain Coast and on major rivers leading inland.

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: July.26: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1790: Residence Act, which stipulated that the president select a site on the Potomac River as the permanent capital signed into law

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – On July 16, 1790, the Residence Act, which stipulated that the president select a site on the Potomac River as the permanent capital of the United States following a ten-year temporary residence in Philadelphia, was signed into law. In a proclamation issued on January 24, 1791, President George Washington announced the permanent location of the new capital, an area of land at the confluence of the Potomac and Eastern Branch (Anacostia) rivers that would eventually become the District of Columbia.

Soon after, Washington commissioned French engineer Pierre-Charles L’Enfant to create a plan for the city.Panorama aerial view of Washington, D.C. Carol M. Highsmith, photographer, between 1980 and 1990. Highsmith (Carol M.) Archive. Prints & Photographs DivisionPlan of the City Intended for the Permanent Seat of the Government…. Pierre Charles L’Enfant, manuscript map on paper. Office, Commissioner of Public Buildings, D.C., 1791. Cities and Towns. Geography & Map Division

L’Enfant arrived in Georgetown on March 9, 1791, and submitted his report and plan to the president in August. It is believed that this plan is the one preserved in the Library of Congress.

L’Enfant’s plan was greatly influenced by the traditions of Baroque landscape architecture and his projections of a future city population of 800,000. Its scheme of broad radiating avenues connecting significant focal points, its open spaces, and its grid pattern of streets oriented north, south, east, and west is still the gold standard against which all modern land use proposals for the Nation’s capital are considered.

The glorious vistas and dramatic landscape of today’s Washington are a result of L’Enfant’s careful planning. From the steps of the U.S. Capitol one can gaze down the mall to the Washington Monument and on to the Lincoln Memorial.View of Washington City. Baltimore: E. Sachse & Co., 1871. Panoramic Maps. Geography & Map Division

Let Us Now Praise Famous Men

On July 16, 1936, photographer Walker Evans (1903-75) took a leave of absence from the Farm Security Administration (FSA) to accept a summer assignment with Fortune magazine. Evans, who had begun working as a photographer in 1928, had developed a modest reputation by the time that he was hired in October 1935 by Roy Stryker, then leader of the FSA photographic section. Stryker agreed to grant him leave for the magazine assignment on the condition that his photographs remained government property.

Walker Evans, profile, hand up to face. Edwin Locke, photographer, Feb. 1937. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives. Prints & Photographs Division

Evans and the writer James Agee spent several weeks among sharecropper families in Hale County, Alabama. The article they produced documented in words and images the lives of poor Southern farmers afflicted by the Great Depression; their work, however, did not meet Fortune‘s expectations and was rejected for publication.

Washstand in the dog run and kitchen of Floyd Burroughs’ cabin, Hale County, Alabama. Walker Evans, photographer, [Summer 1936]. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black- and-White Negatives . Prints & Photographs Division.

Evans’ desire to produce photographs that were “pure record not propaganda” did not harmonize with Stryker’s emphasis on the use of the image to promote social activism. Soon after the Alabama series was completed, Evans returned to New York. There Evans and Agee reworked their material and searched for another publisher. In 1941, the expanded version of their story was published in book form as Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, now recognized as a masterpiece of the art of photojournalism.

Walker Evans went on to exhibit and publish his work (he was a staff photographer at Fortune, 1945-65) and to teach at the Yale University School of Art and Architecture. James Agee became one of America’s most influential film critics as well as a poet, novelist, and screenwriter. James Agee died in 1955; Walker Evans died in 1975.

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: July.16: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1819, Elias Howe, inventor of the first practical sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Massachusetts.

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – On July 9, 1819, Elias Howe, inventor of the first practical sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Massachusetts. At the age of sixteen, he began an apprenticeship in a factory in Lowell, Massachusetts, but lost that job in the Panic of 1837.

Inventor of the Sewing Machine

Howe then moved to Boston, where he found work in a machinist’s shop. It was here that he began tinkering with the idea of inventing a mechanical sewing machine.

Occupational Portrait of a Woman Working at a Sewing Machine. [ca. 1853]. Daguerreotypes. Prints & Photographs Division

Eight years later, he demonstrated his machine to the public. At 250 stitches a minute, Howe’s lockstitch mechanism outstitched five hand sewers with a reputation for speed. He patented the invention on September 10, 1846.

Howe struggled financially for the next nine years. Unable to enlist interest in his machine in the United States, he went to England in 1847, where he entered the employment of William Thomas, a manufacturer of umbrellas, corsets, and leather goods. Thomas saw the possibilities of a sewing machine as his employees all stitched by hand. Howe agreed to work with Thomas to adapt his machine to Thomas’ needs. However, after two disappointing years, Howe returned to the U.S. almost penniless and went back to working as a journeyman machinist. Upon his return, Howe noticed that while he had been in England, the sewing machine had become widely recognized and that the various machines used all or part of his patented invention.

Richmond & Backus Co. Sewing Room, Detroit. [between 1900 and 1910]. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

In the 1850s, Isaac Singer invented the up-and-down motion mechanism and Allen Wilson developed a rotary hook shuttle. Howe initially wrote letters to the manufacturers he felt were patent infringers, seeking compensation. He was forced to take them to court to see that his rights in the invention were recognized, finally winning one of many suits in 1854. Howe’s actions started a whirlwind of legal battles as sewing machine manufacturers began suing each other over various patents. Finally, the four major sewing machine manufacturers agreed to pool their patent rights in a “Sewing Machine Combination” under which the sewing machine was marketed for many years.

Closeup of Man Working Sewing Machine in Garment Factory, Jersey Homesteads, Hightstown, New Jersey. Russell Lee, photographer, Nov. 1936. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives. Prints & Photographs Division

After successfully defending his right to a share in the profits of his invention, Howe’s annual income rose. Between 1854 and 1867, it is estimated that Howe earned close to two million dollars from his invention. During the Civil War, he donated a portion of his wealth to equip an infantry regiment for the Union Army and served in the regiment as a private.

The first mechanical sewing machines were used in garment factory production lines. By necessity they were heavy, not portable, and very expensive. The need for a lighter and more reasonably priced machine was evident. By the late 1850s, several “Family Sewing Machines” began appearing. By the early twentieth century, the electrically powered sewing machine was in wide use.

Domestic sewing machine. [bride and groom]. W.J. Morgan & Co., lithographer, c1882. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division

The mechanical sewing machine was one in a series of technological innovations that transformed the nature of work over the course of the nineteenth century. As the century progressed, a growing number of women and children were part of an urban and industrialized work force. By 1900, most Americans employed in manufacturing no longer worked at home with their hands but in centralized factories with powered machinery.Girls Winding Armatures. G.W. Bitzer, camera; United States: American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, 1904. Inside an American Factory: Films of the Westinghouse Works, 1904. Motion Picture, Broadcasting & Recorded Sound Division

In her 1915 book, The Trade Union Woman, Alice Henry argued for both workers’ rights and the women’s vote in the name of safeguarding future generations:

Women are doing their share of their country’s work under entirely novel conditions. What makes the whole matter of overwhelming importance is the wasteful way in which the health, the lives, and the capacity for future motherhood of our young girls are squandered during the few brief years they spend as human machines in our factories and stores. Youth, joy and the possibility of future happiness lost forever, in order that we may have cheap (or dear), waists or shoes or watches.…Give her fairer wages, shorten her hours of toil, let her have the chance of a good time, of a happy girlhood, and an independent, normal woman will be free to make a real choice of the best man. She will not be tempted to passively accept any man who offers himself, just in order to escape from a life of unbearable toil, monotony and deprivation.

The Trade Union Woman, by Alice Henry. New York and London: D. Appleton & Co., 1915. National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection. Rare Book & Special Collections Divisionnone

4-H Sewing Class, [Paradise Valley, Nevada]. Carl Fleischhauer, photographer, May 1978. Buckaroos in Paradise: Ranching Culture in Northern Nevada, 1945 to 1982. American Folklife Center

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On July 9, 1793, Vermont completed revisions to its constitution and became the first state in the United States to prohibit slavery. Vermonthad already been admitted to the union as the fourteenth state on March 4, 1791.

A farm, Bethel, VT. John Collier Jr., photographer, June 1943. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Color Photographs, Prints & Photographs Division

The name Vermont is derived from the French vert mont meaning “green mountains”—that portion of the Appalachian Mountains running through the center of the state. The area was originally settled by the Abenaki Indians. In 1609, the Frenchman Samuel de Champlain explored the region and named a lake, on what is now Vermont’s northwest border, after himself. By the end of the French and Indian War (1754-63) the territory was British.

The land was contested by the colonies of New York and New Hampshire. Between 1770 and 1775, many men joined the Green Mountain Boys, a civilian militia led by Ethan Allen and Seth Warner, to repulse Britain’s claims.

When the American Revolution began, the Green Mountain Boys fought for independence from England. Their successful assault on Fort Ticonderoga in May 1775 is generally cited as the first offensive action of the Revolution. In 1777, the inhabitants of Vermont created an independent republic—first as New Connecticut, then as Vermont. The 1777 constitution of the Republic of Vermont abolished slavery and gave voting privileges to all freemen.

In 1796, George Washington wrote to the Vermont legislature:

Gentlemen: With particular pleasure I receive the unanimous address of the Council and General Assembly of the State of Vermont. Altho’ but lately admitted into the Union, yet the importance of your State, its love of liberty and its energy, were manifested in the earliest period of the revolution which established our independence. Unconnected in name only, but in reality united with the Confederated States, these felt and acknowledged the benefits of your cooperation. Their mutual safety and advantage duly appreciated, will never permit this union to be dissolved.

George Washington to Vermont Legislature, December 12, 1796. Series 2, Letterbooks 1754-1799: Letterbook 40, Oct. 2, 1794 – March 28, 1797. George Washington Papers. Manuscript Divisionnone

More than 35,000 Vermont soldiers fought for the Union during the Civil War. Vermont was the site of the only Civil War action north of Pennsylvania when a band of Confederate soldiers raided St. Albans in October 1864.

The collection of interviews taken for the Work Projects Administration by unemployed writers during the Depression Era, contains many narratives of Vermont farmers and artisans, such as the following:

One mornin’ along the last of February or the first of March and Ezra is on his way to the barn for the chores. He stops as he steps out of the shed door, squints at the sky just flushed with faint pink in the east, he licks his finger and holds it up slowly turning it to get the feel of the wind. Then he squints at the galloping gilded horse bravely defying the laws of gravity on top of the barn to verify his findings on the way of the wind. He nods and takes a deep breath of the clear sharp morning air. There’s a feelin’ to it, a haunting elusive promise of change. Come a week or so thinks Ezra an’ it will be time to get started on sugarin’.

He steps back to the kitchen door. Ma is marching her morning paths from stove to sink, sink to pantry. She likes to get a start on the mornin’. An hour in the mornin’ is worth two in the afternoon as far as puttin’ work off goes. You can get a sight more done and out of the way before breakfast if you fly round.

“Ma, you better plan for sugarin’,” Ezra’s voice is full of satisfaction.

The Vermont Farmer.” Mrs Halley, writer; Living Lore in New England, ca. 1938-1939. American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940. Manuscript Divisionnone

#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: July.09: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com