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#OTD 1789: Final day United States Congress passed an Act to Recognise & Adapt to the Constitution of the USA

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – On September 29, 1789, the final day of its first session, the United States Congress passed “An act to recognize and adapt to the Constitution of the United States, the establishment of the troops raised under the resolves of the United States in Congress assembled.”

The act legalized the existing U.S. Army, a small force inherited from the Continental Congress that had been created under the Articles of Confederation.Infantry: Continental Army, 1779-1783, IV / H.A. Ogden; lith. by G.H. Buek & Co., N.Y. Henry Alexander Ogden, artist; c1897. Prints & Photographs Division

Although the Constitution of the United States charged Congress with raising and regulating military forces, newly elected House and Senate members delayed acting on this provision. Busy organising the federal government and debating the location of the new capital, Congress neglected dealing with the issue of military forces until prodded by President and Commander in Chief George Washington.

On August 7, Washington reminded both Houses that the provision for troops made under the Continental Congress must be superseded by action under the new Constitution. The establishment of United States troops was an issue, the president wrote:

…the national importance and necessity of which I am deeply impressed; I mean some uniform and effective system for the Militia of the United States. It is unnecessary to offer arguments in recommendation of a measure, on which the honor, safety and well being of our Country so evidently and essentially depend: But it may not be amiss to observe that I am particularly anxious it should receive an early attention as circumstances will admit; because it is now in our power to avail ourselves of the military knowledge disseminated throughout the several States by means of the many well instructed Officers and soldiers of the late Army; a resource which is daily diminishing by deaths and other causes.

George Washington to Congress, August 7, 1789, Indian Affairs. Series 2, Letterbooks 1754-1799. Letterbook 25, April 6, 1789 – March 4, 1791. George Washington Papers. Manuscript Divisionnone

Portrait of Henry Knox, Secretary of War. Constantino Brumidi, artist; photograph of painting by Lycurgus S. Glover, c1904 [painting in the President’s room of the United States Capitol]. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

This appeal, delivered by Secretary of War Henry Knox, was not immediately acted upon. Three days later, on August 10, Washington again urged Congress to address the issue. Finally, on September 29, 1789, the House of Representatives and the Senate passed the act that officially established the army under the Constitution of the United States.

Lieutenant John F. Kennedy: In October 1941, John F. Kennedy was appointed an ensign in the United States Naval Reserve, joining the staff of the Office of Naval Intelligence.

After entering the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center in Melville, Rhode Island, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant (junior grade) in October 1942, and shortly thereafter ordered to report for duty as commanding officer of a motor torpedo boat in Panama. Prior to his departure, playwright Clare Boothe Luce, a close friend of the Kennedy family, sent the young naval officer a good luck coin that once belonged to her mother. On September 29, 1942, Kennedy wrote to Luce thanking her for sharing such an important token with him.

John F. Kennedy, head-and-shoulders portrait,…] [between 1960-1970]. Prints & Photographs Division

I came home yesterday and Dad gave me your letter with the gold coin. The coin is now fastened to my identification tag and will be there, I hope, for the duration. I couldn’t have been more pleased. Good luck is a commodity in rather large demand these days and I feel you have given me a particularly potent bit of it.

Letter, John F. Kennedy to Clare Boothe Luce thanking the congresswoman for a good luck coin, 29 September [1942]. (Clare Boothe Luce Papers). Manuscript Division

Kennedy transferred to the Pacific theater in February 1943 and became commanding officer of PT109 in April, operating against the Japanese near the island of New Georgia in the Solomon Islands. On the night of August 1-2, Kennedy’s boat was rammed and cut in two by a Japanese destroyer. Although he was injured during the attack, Kennedy managed to locate one of his injured crew and lead him to safety; most of his crew survived. He later received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his heroism.

A few months later, Kennedy again wrote to Luce. With his note, he enclosed a gadget, originally intended to be a letter opener, made “from a Jap 51 cal. bullet and the steel from a fitting on my boat, part of which drifted onto an island.” He concluded his message with a word of thanks for Luce’s earlier gift:

With it goes my sincere thanks for your good-luck piece, which did service above and beyond its routine duties during a rather busy period.

John F. Kennedy to Clare Boothe Luce, October 20, 1943.Clare Boothe Luce Papers (correspondence, box 116). Manuscript Divisionnone

No stranger to the front line herself, Luce covered World War II as a journalist. She published Europe in the Spring, an anti-isolationist account of her experiences in embattled Europe, in 1940—in the early days of World War II.

Portrait of Clare Boothe Luce. Carl Van Vechten, photographer, Dec. 9, 1932. Van Vechten Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.29:  2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1542: Date given in some sources, Iberian explorers, sailing under the Spanish flag, arrived in San Diego Bay.

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Around September 28, 1542, the date given in some sources, Iberian explorers, sailing under the Spanish flag, arrived in San Diego Bay. While exploring the northwest shores of Mexico, they became the first Europeans to reach this part of California.

Portrait of William Christopher Handy]. Carl Van Vechten, photographer, July 17, 1941. Van Vechten Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

W.C. Handy, Father of the Blues

Their observations may have informed Diego Gutierrez’s draft of the first map of America to include the name California (pictured below), which references Baja California, or Cape California, at the far southern part of Baja. This image is displayed in the Inventing America section of the Library of Congress online exhibition 1492: An Ongoing Voyage.

On Saturday, September 28, 1912, William Christopher (W. C.) Handy’s Memphis Blues of Mister Crump, retitled The Memphis Blues, went on sale at Bry’s Department Store in Memphis. Although the first 1,000 copies sold out in three days, Handy was told that the song had flopped. When the publisher offered to buy the rights for just fifty dollars, the composer agreed.

Born in Alabama in 1873, Handy attended Teachers Agricultural and Mechanical College in Huntsville. After a short stint teaching school, he began playing cornet with dance bands that traveled the Mississippi Delta. Handy transcribed and collected blues songs that he had heard on the road in the 1890s, but continued to play the ragtime dance tunes that audiences demanded. To identify recordings of W.C. Handy performing, search the American Folklife Center’s Traditional Music and Spoken Word Catalog.

By 1909, Handy had settled in Memphis, Tennessee, a Delta city with a cosmopolitan population and a limitless appetite for music. In Memphis, even mayoral races warranted musical accompaniment. As one of the top bandleaders in town, Handy was hired by aspiring mayor E. H. Crump. To attract attention to his candidate, Handy wrote an original tune entitled “

Memphis Blues of Mister Crump” which merged the blues sound with popular ragtime style by slightly flattening the third tone of the scale. Overwhelmingly popular, the song contributed to electoral success for Crump and musical success for Handy.
William Christopher Handy’s “Memphis Blues” was published. From “Jump Back in Time (Progressive Era 1890-1913)” in America’s Story from America’s Library.

A Lasting Impact

Swindled out of his first big hit, W.C. Handy went on to produce “St. Louis Blues” in 1914, “Beale Street Blues” in 1916, and other popular works. By the time of his death in 1958, W. C. Handy was recognized across the world as the “Father of the Blues.”

Cake Walk . [ca, 1905]. Prints & Photographs Division

In the 1910s and 1920s, songs like “Memphis Blues” and “Beale Street Blues” were considered ragtime dance tunes. The emergence of ragtime music changed popular dance. Search on ragtime in the Library’s digital collection An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals, ca. 1490 to 1920. Five dance manuals in this collection were published in 1914, including Modern Dancing by the famous exhibition ballroom dancers, Mr. and Mrs. Vernon Castle. One of the first dances developed for ragtime, the Cake Walk is demonstrated in short films available in Variety Stage Sound Recordings and Motion Pictures. See dancers doing the cake walk, as well as a comedy cake walk.Black Cinderella Cake Walk. Florence Wood, composer; Peter McCormick, 1900. Ragtime. Music Division

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  • To identify recordings of W.C. Handy performing, search the American Folklife Center’s Traditional Music and Spoken Word Catalog.  Also, be sure to check out the Alan Lomax Collection for more field recordings of the blues and other forms of traditional American song.
  • Search our digital collection, Southern Mosaic: The John and Ruby Lomax 1939 Southern States Recording Trip using the terms blues and field holler to hear rural Southerners sing the type of tunes that inspired Handy.
  • Visit the award-winning collection, African-American Sheet Musicfrom the Brown University Library. Search on keywords such as Handy, blues, ragtime, rag or cake walk to view more musical works in this tradition. In viewing this collection, keep in mind that the Library of Congress presents these documents as part of the record of the past. These primary historical documents reflect the attitudes, perspectives, and beliefs of different times. The Library of Congress and Brown University do not endorse the views expressed in these collections, which may contain materials offensive to some readers.
  • Visit the William P. Gottlieb Collection to see photographs of the musicians who elaborated on Handy’s musical tradition during the 1930s.
  • Search the Duke University Library collection Historic American Sheet Music on Handy to browse early published sheet music of Handy’s tunes. Search on the keyword blues to view sheet music inspired by the “Father of the Blues.”
  • Visit The Library of Congress Celebrates the Songs of America. The collections and special presentations include Historic Sheet Music 1800 to 1922, approximately 9,000 items published from 1800 to 1922, including the sheet music to The Memphis Blues.
#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.28: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1514: Spanish crown granted the explorer Juan Ponce de León a contract to settle the islands of Bimini and Florida (de León thought the latter was an island).

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – The Quest of Ponce de León – On September 27, 1514, the Spanish crown granted the explorer Juan Ponce de León a contract to settle the islands of Bimini and Florida (de León thought the latter was an island). His first contract, granted in February 1512, authorized de León to discover and populate Bimini.

Norton Gallery and School of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida. Patio, general view with statue (title: Fountain of Youth; sculptor: Wheeler Williams). Jan. 17, 1942. Gottscho-Schleisner Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

For his second voyage, he equipped his fleet and sailed for Florida from Puerto Rico in 1521 with two ships, two hundred men, fifty horses, and a variety of domestic animals and agricultural tools.

Ponce de León landed near Charlotte Harbor on Florida’s west coast, and his arrival did not go unnoticed; the colonists were soon attacked by Calusa Indians, a Native American tribe that controlled most of southern Florida at the time. During the assault, an arrow struck and wounded Ponce de León. He returned to Cuba, where he died as a result of his infected wound that same year.

On his first visit to Florida, in April 1513, Ponce de León landed at the site of modern day St. Augustine. He named the region Florida because of the lush, florid vegetation that grew there. Thinking he had found the island of Bimini, he searched for the mythical Fountain of Youth, said to rejuvenate those who drank from it. Subsequent Spanish incursions in North America led to the founding of a permanent settlement at St. Augustine in 1565.

In the Court of the Ponce de Leon, St. Augustine, Fla. c1905. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

“‘On February 10, 1521, he [Ponce de Leon] wrote to the emperor: “I discovered Florida and some other small islands at my own expense, and now I am going to settle them with plenty of men and two ships, and I am going to explore the coast, to see if it compares with the lands (Cuba) discovered by Velasquez.…But the captain’s star of fortune was waning. He had a stormy passage, and when he and his men landed they met with such fierce resistance from the natives that after several encounters and the loss of many men, Ponce himself being seriously wounded, they were forced to reembark. Feeling that his end was approaching, the captain did not return to San Juan, but sought a refuge in Puerto Principe, where he died.”

Chapter XI: Calamities—Ponce’s Second Expedition to Florida and Death 1520-1537. In The History of Puerto Rico, from the Spanish Discovery to the American Occupation, by R. A. Van Middeldyk; edited by Martin G. Brumbaugh; New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1903.Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age: Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century Perspectives. Hispanic Divisionnone

Alcazar, Cordova, & Ponce de Leon, St. Augustine, Fla. Harris Co., c1910. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.25: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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American History

#OTD 1775: John Chapman, born in Leominster, Massachusetts, came to be known as “Johnny Appleseed.” as a Nurseryman who planted Apple Trees

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – John Chapman, born in Leominster, Massachusetts, on September 26, 1775, came to be known as “Johnny Appleseed.” Chapman earned his nickname because he planted nurseries and individual apple trees across 100,000 square miles of midwestern wilderness and prairie—resulting in settlers’ planting their own orchards.

Johnny Appleseed]. William Gropper, artist, 1941. Fine Prints. Prints & Photograph Division

Johnny Appleseed

The first record of Chapman’s presence in the Midwest dates to 1801 when he was known to be on the Ohio River transporting bushels of apple seeds from western Pennsylvania for his nurseries. Chapman’s first apple-tree nursery was along the Allegheny Valley in northwestern Pennsylvania; he then ventured into central and northwestern Ohio and to eastern Indiana. Chapman scouted routes that he thought pioneers would settle and planted his seedlings ahead of the new settlements.

Apples for Sale at Roadside Stand, near Berlin, Connecticut. Russell Lee, photographer, Oct. 1939. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives. Prints & Photographs Division

Chapman lived in Mansfield, Ohio, for about twenty years. Years before the Homestead Act he acquired about 1,000 acres of farmland in Mansfield through a local homestead arrangement. Chapman used the land to develop apple-tree nurseries. His reputation as a conservationist, a brave frontiersman, and as an eccentric (in dress as well as mannerisms) grew, as did stories of his kindness to animals and his heroic exploits.

Chapman was an ambulant man. Each year he traveled hundreds of miles on foot—wearing clothing made from sack cloth and carrying a cooking pot that he is said to have worn like a cap. His travels took him through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana.

As a member of the New Church, or, Church of the New Jerusalem, (Swedenborgian), he left sections of Swedenborgian tracts at cabins that he visited and preached “God has made all things for good.”

In about 1830, Chapman also acquired land in Fort Wayne, Indiana, where he planted a nursery that produced thousands of seedling apple trees that he sold, traded, and planted elsewhere. Chapman passed away at the age of seventy. Every September, when apples are ripe, Fort Wayne hosts an annual festival to commemorate the life of Johnny Appleseed.

Legend and folklore has transformed Johnny Appleseed into a folk hero—the patron saint of horticulture.

Bird’s Eye View of the City of Fort Wayne, Indiana 1868. Drawn by A. Ruger; Chicago Lithographing Co., 1868. Cities and Towns. Geography & Map Division“
Eve Wasn’t Modest till She Ate that Apple; We’ll Have to Pass the Apples Again.” Words by Charles McCarron; music by Albert von Tilzer; New York: Broadway Music, 1917. Historic American Sheet Music. Duke University Libraries

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.25: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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#OTD 1897: Novelist William Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Novelist William Faulkner was born in New Albany, Mississippi, on September 25, 1897. He spent much of his youth in Oxford where his father was employed as the secretary and then business manager for the University of Mississippi.

The past is never dead. It’s not even past.

From Requiem for a Nun, Act I, Scene III, by William Faulknernone

Portrait of William Faulkner. Carl Van Vechten, photographer, Dec. 11, 1954. Van Vechten Collection. Prints & Photographs Division.

Faulkner was the creator of the mythical Yoknapatawpha County in Mississippi. He portrayed a landscape of universal themes through decayed Southern white gentry, merchants, farmers, poor whites, and persecuted blacks. In stories notable for their experimental narrative techniques, he wrote about the troubled legacy of race, the conflicts between the values of the agrarian Old South and the industrial New South, and dysfunction both within the family and within the larger community. Faulkner’s characters confront institutionalized racial violence and intimate crime while struggling to live with dignity, meaning, and compassion, often in the face of degradation and humiliation.

William Faulkner left high school before graduating and attended university only briefly, dropping out in the first semester of his sophomore year. Despondent over a love affair and inspired by aspirations for military glory, he joined the Canadian Royal Air Force but never saw active service. Upon returning to Oxford, he was appointed postmaster of the University of Mississippi, a job he was unable to maintain.

Tell about the South. What’s it like there. What do they do there. Why do they live there. Why do they live at all. . . .
“Now I want you to tell me just one more thing. Why do you hate the South?”
“I dont hate it,” Quentin said, quickly, at once, immediately; “I dont hate it,” he said. 
I dont hate it he thought, panting in the cold air, the iron New England dark;I dont. I dont! I dont hate it! I dont hate it!

From Absalom, Absalom! by William Faulknernone

Faulkner lived for a short time in New Orleans, where he received encouragement from writer Sherwood Anderson. He also traveled to France and Italy, though he made no attempt to meet any of the Lost Generation of expatriate American artists who had settled in Europe after World War I. Aside from these ventures and stints as a Hollywood screenwriter, Faulkner spent the remainder of his life in Mississippi and Virginia, writing brilliantly and prolifically in isolation from his peers.

After his third novel was rejected by the publisher Horace Liveright for its “diffuse” plot and characterization, Faulkner assumed that his work would not receive public recognition, but he was determined to continue writing for his own fulfillment. In fact, he achieved notice with his very next novel, The Sound and the Fury, which was praised by most reviewers upon its publication in October 1929. He continued to publish novels and poems for the next three decades. Faulkner was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes, in 1955 for A Fable, and in 1963 for The Reivers. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1949 “for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel.” During his brief acceptance speech, Faulkner spoke of the human condition and the writer’s duty in the nuclear era:

I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is immortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance. The poet’s, the writer’s, duty is to write about these things.

William Faulkner, “Nobel Prize Acceptance Speechnone

Two women walking along street, Natchez, Mississippi . Ben Shahn, photographer, Oct. 1935. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives. Prints & Photographs Division
Wife of Negro sharecropper, Lee County, Mississippi. Arthur Rothstein, photographer, Aug. 1935. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives. Prints & Photographs Division
Playing dominoes or cards in front of a drug store in the center of town, in Mississippi Delta, Mississippi. Marion Post Wolcott, photographer, Oct. 1939. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives. Prints & Photographs Division

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.24: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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American History

#OTD 1896: Writer F. Scott Fitzgerald, best known for his classic American novel The Great Gatsby, was born in St. Paul,

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Writer F. Scott Fitzgerald, best known for his classic American novel The Great Gatsby, was born on September 24, 1896, in St. Paul,

Portrait of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Carl Van Vechten, photographer, June 4, 1937. Van Vechten Collection. Prints & Photographs Division

Minnesota. Named for his distant cousin Francis Scott Key, author of “The Star-Spangled Banner,” Fitzgerald was descended, on his father’s side, from a long line of Marylanders. His mother, Mary McQuillan, was the daughter of an Irish immigrant who made his fortune as a wholesale grocer in St. Paul.

So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby. New York, C. Scribner’s sons, 1925.none

Fitzgerald achieved fame almost overnight with the 1920 publication of his first novel, This Side of Paradise. The novel, which draws heavily upon his years at Princeton, tells the story of a young man’s quest for fulfillment in love and career. The success of this novel enabled Fitzgerald to marry Zelda Sayre, whom he had met while stationed at Camp Sheridan, near Montgomery, Alabama. Over the course of the next decade and a half, while struggling to cope with the demons of his alcoholism and her emerging mental illness, the Fitzgeralds enjoyed a life of literary celebrity among the American artists and writers who had expatriated to Paris after the First World War. The American artistic community in Europe included such notable figures as Ernest Hemingway,

Archibald MacLeish, John Dos Passos, and Gertrude Stein.Panoramic view of St. Paul, Minn. Haines Photo Co., 1911. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

In 1924, Fitzgerald wrote The Great Gatsby, considered his greatest work. Although it initially met with little commercial success, the novel about the American aspiration for material success has become one of the most popular, widely read, and critically acclaimed works of fiction in the nation’s literature.

Fitzgerald continued to publish novels and stories during the 1920s and 1930s. By 1936, however, both his marriage and his health were deteriorating. He spent the years 1936-1937 in the vicinity of Asheville, North Carolina, where his wife was receiving psychiatric treatment for recurrent schizophrenic episodes. For the last years of his life, Fitzgerald lived in Hollywood, earning his living as a screenwriter. Fitzgerald died on December 21, 1940 at the age of forty-five, leaving his final novel, The Last Tycoon, unfinished.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper was born free on September 24, 1825 in Baltimore, Maryland. She was one of the most prominent and active African American women of the nineteenth century. Her life was a fusion of literature and activism with accomplishments as a lecturer, writer, poet, journalist and advocate of emancipation, women’s rights, and social justice.

Frances E.W. Harper…. Illus. in: Poems/ Frances E.W. Harper. Philadelphia: George S. Ferguson Co., 1898, frontispiece. Prints & Photographs Division

Unlike most nineteenth century women, she was well educated. She attended the prestigious Watkins Academy for Negro Youth which stressed leadership and activism. Its rigorous curriculum included: the Bible, history, geography, mathematics, English, rhetoric, and oratory. After the academy, she was employed by a bookstore owner who allowed her to continue her education by independently reading in her free time.

In 1854, after a couple of teaching positions, she presented a lecture in New Bedford, Massachusetts titled, “The Elevation and Education of Our People.” This presentation was the catalyst for her to be hired as a traveling lecturer by the Maine Anti-Slavery Society. Her excellent presentations and wonderful reviews in both the Black and the white press enhanced her reputation. Consequently, she was hired as a public lecturer by additional anti-slavery societies and other organizations.

In her anti-slavery lectures, she frequently incorporated recitations of poems that reflected the tragic circumstances of slavery from her book Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects. Published in 1854, it effectively launched her literary career and was remarkably successful with sales of over 10,000 in three years. During her life, numerous revised editions were published.Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects. By Frances Ellen Watkins Harper. Boston: J. B. Yerrinton & Son, Printers, 1854.

African American Perspectives: Materials Selected from the Rare Book Collection. Rare Book & Special Collections Division

After the Civil War, she traveled throughout the South speaking on education, civil rights, temperance, domestic reform, and the need to end lynching. During this challenging time, she was well received and highly requested.

While lecturing, she continued to write. When The Two Offers was published in The Anglo-African Magazine in 1859, she became the first Black short story writer in the United States. Her range of letters, poems, and essays published in journals and newspapers established her as an internationally recognized journalist. She published several collections of poetry and was reputed to be one of the nineteenth century’s best loved Black poets. In 1892, she was one of the first African American women to publish a novel. Iola Leroy or Shadows Uplifted was a best seller and her most well-known literary achievement.

Harper’s literary productions were heavily influenced by her politics. Over her life, her numerous writings and lectures contained an impressive range of subjects that included: enslavement and abolitionism, human rights and dignity, women’s rights and equality, racial and social justice, lynching and mob violence, voting rights, moral character, racial self-help and uplift, and multiracial cooperation for common good.

In 1871, she purchased a home in Philadelphia. This was a notable accomplishment for a woman during this time.

In her activist capacity, Harper founded, supported, and held high office in several national African American and Anglo progressive organizations. In the Anglo organizations, she was often the only African American. Even though she was in conflict with the members at times, she participated in their national conventions and served on their executive boards. For example, in 1866, Harper spoke at the National Woman’s Rights Convention in New York. Her speech, We Are All Bound up Together,” urged her fellow attendees to include African American women in their fight for suffrage. She challenged all the organizations to work together based on common interests. Her philosophy was that freedom and justice were the rights of all humans and that each and all were obligated to struggle to secure these.

Additional examples of her activism include: a signer of the constitution of the Ohio State Anti-Slavery Society, superintendent of the Colored Branch of the Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Chapters of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, director of the Northern United States Temperance Union, director of the American Association of Colored Youth, founding member and vice president of the National Association of Colored Women.

Frances E. W. Harper would have been considered exemplary in any century, but to accomplish what she did in the nineteenth century was truly amazing. She died in Philadelphia in 1911, leaving a legacy of literary and activist achievement.

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.24: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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PEACE & TRUTH

BEN H ENGLISH. TEXAS, U.S.A.

SOMEWHERE IN THE LOWER BIG BEND:

Like a long-abandoned set for a 1960s science fiction movie, this oddly-shaped as well as placed canyon stretches out in a northerly direction, before turning almost upon itself to stretch out to the southwest and its junction with Alamo Creek.

It has no name I have ever been aware of, so as is wont to human nature I christened the spot ‘Mars Valley.’ Again, likely due to my childhood memories of those same science fiction movies. Strange how memories and imagination can influence each other, especially when in the wilds.

Not much grows in Mars Valley, and the lack of tracks in the bottoms gives mute affirmation that the native wildlife feels much the same about this place as the plant world. The only sign of any living creature was the occasional soaring carrion bird on high, looking unsuccessfully for something dead to feast upon.

And the only thing dead visible was close to where this photograph was shot. While taking a break from the ALICE pack digging into my aching shoulders, I sat down on a large, red rock and happened to look to one side.

There, lying all by itself under the harsh sun was the single blackened fang of a rather large, now defunct rattlesnake. My weariness being overcome by curiosity, I circled the immediate area to see what happened to the rest. But no other remains of the poisonous serpent were found, evidently those ever watchful carrion birds had long since made a meal of it.

Once I had sat back down and did some distance calculations while consulting my quad map, I realized there were still miles to go before darkness set in. The first jink in the valley pointed like a compass needle to where I needed to go, so I saddled my pack again and leaned into the harness.

“Miles to go before I sleep” wrote the poet. Though there were no woods or snow in this dry, barren land, I knew of what he wrote all those years before.

And down into the valley I went, a solitary sojourner in search of what lay over the next hill, in the midst of the wastes of the planet Mars…

God bless to all,
Ben

BOOK SIGNINGS AND TALKS:
–STEPHENVILLE Saturday, October 1st, Stephenville Public Library 9am-12noon
–ALPINE Friday, October 7th, Big Bend OctaneFest at The Stable Performance Cars 12noon-5pm
–LUBBOCK Saturday-Sunday, Oct 15-16th, Lubbock Book Festival
–FORT STOCKTON Monday, October 17th, Fort Stockton Public Library 6pm
–TERLINGUA Saturday, November 5th, Tolbert Terlingua Chili Group Information OTICCC10a-3pm
–AMARILLO Tuesday, November 15th, North Branch Public Library 6:30-8:30pm

Ben H. English
Alpine, Texas
USMC: 1976-1983
THP: 1986-2008
HS Teacher: 2008-2010

Author of ‘Yonderings’ (TCU Press)
‘Destiny’s Way’ (Creative Texts Publishers)
‘Out There: Essays on the Lower Big Bend’ (Creative Texts Publishers)
‘The Uvalde Raider’ (Creative Texts Publishers)
‘Black And White: Tales of the Texas Highway Patrol’ (Creative Texts Publishers)

Facebook: Ben H. English
Webpage: benhenglish.com

‘Graying but still game’

Categories
American History

#OTD 1863: Mary Church Terrell—educator, political activist, and first president of the National Association of Colored Women

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – Mary Church Terrell—educator, political activist, and first president of the National Association of Colored Women—was born on September 23, 1863, in Memphis, Tennessee.

An 1884 graduate of Oberlin College, America’s first college to admit women and amongst the first to admit students of all races, Terrell was one of the first American women of African descent to graduate from college. She earned her master’s degree from Oberlin in 1888.

Not only are colored women with ambition and aspiration handicapped on account of their sex, but they are everywhere baffled and mocked on account of their race…Desperately and continuously they are forced to fight that opposition, born of a cruel, unreasonable prejudice which neither their merit nor their necessity seems able to subdue.

The Progress of Colored Women,” by Mary Church Terrell. Washington, D.C.: Smith Brothers, Printers, [1898]. African-American Perspectives: Materials Selected from the Rare Book Collection. Rare Book & Special Collections Divisionnone

Mary Church Terrell, three-quarter length portrait…. ca. 1880-1900. Free to Use and Reuse: Images of African American Women Changemakers. Prints & Photographs Division

Terrell began her career as a teacher. After her marriage to Washington lawyer Robert Terrell, she became active in the National American Woman Suffrage Association where she became a spokesperson for the particular concerns of African-American women. A passionate advocate of education, Terrell sold her speeches during this period in order to raise money for a kindergarten. In 1895, she was the first African-American woman to serve on the Washington, D.C., school board, serving until 1905 and again from 1906 to 1911.

Black women’s groups were routinely excluded from national women’s organizations during the late nineteenth century. It was their exclusion from participation in the planning of the 1893 World’s Fair, however, that spurred Terrell and other black women leaders to form the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) in 1896. Also known as the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, it was created to serve as an umbrella organization for black women’s groups throughout the country. Under Terrell’s leadership, the NACW worked to achieve social and educational reform and to end discrimination based on gender and race. In 1940, Terrell wrote her autobiography, A Colored Woman in a White World, a work that used her own more than seventy years of life as an example of the difficulties that blacks faced in a predominantly white society.

Oberlin College scene, student body & faculty in front of Memorial Hall, 1906. R.W. Johnston, 1906. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.23: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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American History

#OTD 1862: Battle of Antietam, President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation,

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – On September 22, 1862, partly in response to the heavy losses inflicted at the Battle of Antietam, President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, threatening to free all the enslaved people in the states in rebellion if those states did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863.

First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation before the Cabinet / painted by F.B. Carpenter; engraved by A.H. Ritchie. c1866. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division

The Emancipation Proclamation: The extent of the Proclamation’s practical effect has been debated, as it was legally binding only in territory not under Union control. In the short term, it amounted to no more than a statement of policy for the federal army as it moved into Southern territory.

Never in all the march of time,
Dawned on this land a more sublime
A grand event than that for which
To-day the lowly and the rich,
Doth humbly bow and meekly send
Their orisons to God, their Friend.

A Poem read by J. Madison Bell. Published in The Centennial Jubilee of Freedom at Columbus, Ohio, Saturday, September 22, 1888. p.87. Xenia, Ohio: The Aldine Printing House, 1888. African American Perspectives: Materials Selected from the Rare Book Collection. Rare Book & Special Collections Divisionnone

Preliminary Draft of Emancipation Proclamation. Abraham Lincoln, July 22, 1862. Series 1. General Correspondence. 1833-1916. Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. Manuscript Division.

In larger terms, however, Lincoln’s decision to issue the Emancipation Proclamation was enormous. This event, combined with the determination on the part of African Americans to flee across Union lines as the federal army advanced into Southern territory, framed the Civil War as a struggle for freedom and against slavery. In more practical terms, the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation prevented European nations from intervening in the war on behalf of the Confederacy and enabled the Union to enlist nearly 180,000 African American soldiers to fight between January 1, 1863 and the conclusion of the war.

Emancipation Day, Richmond, Va. 1905. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

Throughout the intervening years, the public has commemorated the Emancipation Proclamation with marches and celebrations. In American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940, two people share their memories of these events. “Mrs. Ella Boney,” born in Henry Country, Kentucky on October 12, 1869, remembers childhood celebrations in Hill City, Kansas in her 1938 interview:

One of the biggest events of the year for Negroes in Kansas is the Emancipation Proclamation picnic every fourth of August. We celebrate four days in a large grove just out side of Nicodemus, and Negroes come from all over the state. There are about twelve barbecue pits dug and they are going all day barbecuing chickens, turkeys, ducks, pigs, sides of beef, etc.

[Mrs. Ella Boney]. Albert Burks, interviewer; Lincoln, Nebraska: November 26, 1938. American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940. Manuscript Divisionnone

In a 1939 interview, John Wesley Dobbs, a Grand Master of the Prince Hall Masons, recounts his Emancipation Day speech for “Wings over Jordan,” a radio program heard every Sunday morning in the 1930s on station WGAR in Cleveland:

Over the doorway of the nation’s Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. are engraved four words, ‘Equal Justice Under Law’. This beautiful American ideal is what the Negroes want to see operative and effective from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf – nothing more or less.

[I Saw the Stars]. John Wesley Dobbs, interviewee; Geneva Tonsill, interviewer; Atlanta, Georgia, December 2, 1939. American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940. Manuscript Division none

From African American Perspectives: Materials Selected from the Rare Book Collection come speeches and sermons, including an oration delivered by Reverend A.L. DeMond to members of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Montgomery, Alabama, on January 1, 1900. In “The Negro Element in American Life: An Oration,” DeMond describes the Declaration of Independence and the Emancipation Proclamation as:

…two great patriotic, wise and humane state papers…Both were born in days of doubt and darkness. Both were the outcome of injustice overleaping the bounds of right and reason. The one was essential to the fulfilling of the other. Without the Declaration of Independence the nation could not have been born; without the Emancipation Proclamation it could not have lived.

The Negro Element in American Life: An Oration,” delivered by Rev. A.L. DeMond in the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Montgomery, Alabama, Jan. 1, 1900. Montgomery, Ala.: Alabama Printing Company, 1900. African American Perspectives: Materials Selected from the Rare Book Collection. Rare Book & Special Collections Divisionnone

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.22: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

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American History

#OTD 1585: Don Juan de Oñate’s petition and contract for the conquest of New Mexico

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#AceHistoryDesk – Today in History – On September 21, 1595, Don Juan de Oñate’s petition and contract for the conquest of New Mexico was presented to Luís de Velasco, the viceroy of Nueva Vizcaya.

Bird’s Eye View of the City of Santa Fé, N.M., 1882. Beck & Pauli, lithographers; Madison, Wis: J.J. Stoner, 1882. Panoramic Maps. Geography & Maps Division

Already a wealthy and prominent man, he sought to turn the Indians’ wealth into his own and had requested the assignment after hearing rumors about golden cities in the vicinity. Oñate was granted the commission and set about recruiting men for his expedition.

After many delays, Oñate finally began the expedition in 1598 with approximately 200 men, accompanied by their families and servants. The expedition crossed the Rio Grande at El Paso and split up into smaller groups to search for treasure. Some of his men wanted to return to Spain, but Oñate squashed potential deserters by executing several who had attempted to leave. He used brutal force against the Ácoma Indians, who had rebelled and killed several of Oñate’s men. Retribution and the severity of Oñate’s actions after reconquering the pueblo terrified other pueblos and the Spanish priests complained that the Indians distrusted the Spanish—making their conversion difficult.

Pueblo of Aconia [i.e. Acoma], N.M. c1899.Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

In 1601, Oñate set out to find the legendary golden city of Quivera. After years of failure, he returned to find much of his colony deserted. Although his colonization methods were horrific, Oñate is credited with establishing a colony in New Mexico and exploring the geography of the region.

In 1607, Oñate resigned as governor. He was tried and sentenced in 1614 for his cruel actions and ineptitude in ruling the colony. Oñate was fined, banished from New Mexico in perpetuity, and exiled for four years from Mexico City and its vicinity; he also lost his titles as governor and captain general of New Mexico. He appealed his convictions several times after his banishment from Mexico City had elapsed. Evidence of a pardon, likely granted between 1622 and 1624, is inconclusive.Tened piedad, Dios mío (Have Pity, My God). Luis Montoya and Ricardo Archuleta, unaccompanied vocals. Recorded in Cerro, New Mexico, August 9, 1940. Hispano Music and Culture from the Northern Rio Grande: The Juan B. Rael Collection. American Folklife Center

By encouraging further European settlement, efforts led to the founding of Santa Fe in 1610—America’s oldest capital city. Congress established the Territory of New Mexico in 1848 at the conclusion of the Mexican War. On January 6, 1912, New Mexico became the forty-seventh state.

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#AceNewsDesk report ………..Published: Sept.21: 2022:

Editor says …Sterling Publishing & Media Service Agency is not responsible for the content of external site or from any reports, posts or links, and can also be found here on Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all wordpress and live posts and links here: https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com